Tolerant and diverse natural killer cell repertoires in the absence of selection.
ABSTRACT Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes that participate in the early control of viruses and tumors. The function of NK cells is under tight regulation by two complementary inhibitory receptor families that bind to classical and non-classical HLA class I molecules: the CD94/NKG2A receptors and the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs). In this mini-review, recent data on the structure of human NK cell receptor repertoires and its relation to functional responses and tolerance to self are discussed. We propose that no active selection is required to generate diverse NK cell repertoires characterized by a dominant expression of receptors with specificity for self-HLA class I. Instead, the primary consequence of interactions with HLA class I molecules is a functional tuning of randomly generated NK cell repertoires.
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ABSTRACT: The molecular basis of target cell recognition by CD3- natural killer (NK) cells is poorly understood, despite the ability of NK cells to lyse specific tumour cells. In general, target cell major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen expression correlates with resistance to NK cell-mediated lysis, possibly because NK cell-surface molecules engage MHC class I antigens and consequently deliver inhibitory signals. Natural killer cell allospecificity involves the MHC class I peptide-binding cleft, and further understanding of this allospecificity should provide insight into the molecular mechanisms of NK cell recognition. The Ly-49 cell surface molecular mechanisms of NK cell recognition. The Ly-49 cell surface molecule is expressed by 20% of CD3- NK cells in C57BL/6 mice (H-2b). Here we show that C57BL/6-derived, interleukin-2-activated NK cells expressing Ly-49 do not lyse target cells displaying H-2d or H-2k despite efficient spontaneous lysis by Ly-49- effector cells. This preferential resistance correlates with expression of target cell MHC class I antigens. Transfection and expression of H-2Dd, but not H-2Kd or H-2Ld, renders a susceptible target (H-2b) resistant to Ly-49+ effector cells. The transfected resistance is abrogated by monoclonal antibodies directed against Ly-49 or the alpha 1/alpha 2 domains of H-2Dd, suggesting that Ly-49 specifically interacts with the peptide-binding domains of the MHC class I alloantigen, H-2Dd. Inasmuch as Ly-49+ effector cells cannot be stimulated to lyse H-2Dd targets, our results indicate that NK cells may possess inhibitory receptors that specifically recognize MHC class I antigens.Nature 08/1992; 358(6381):66-70. · 38.60 Impact Factor
- PLOS Genetics - PLOS GENET. 01/2008; 4(11).
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ABSTRACT: In primates and cattle two ancient killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) lineages independently evolved to become diverse NK cell receptors. In mice, KIR genes were sidelined to the X chromosome, a possible consequence of pathogen-mediated selection on the receptor for IgA-Fc. In humans, KIR uniquely form two omnipresent haplotype groups (A and B), postulated here to play complementary and necessary roles in immune defense and reproduction. The basis of KIR3DL1/S1 polymorphism is three ancient lineages maintained by long-term balancing selection and present in all human populations. Conserved and variable NK cell receptors produce structurally diverse NK cell receptor repertoires within a defined range of missing-self-response.Seminars in Immunology 01/2009; 20(6):311-6. · 5.93 Impact Factor