Conference Paper

# Silicon Raman amplifiers, lasers, and their applications

Dept. of Electr. Eng., California Univ., Los Angeles, CA, USA

DOI: 10.1109/GROUP4.2005.1516397 Conference: Group IV Photonics, 2005. 2nd IEEE International Conference on Source: IEEE Xplore

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**ABSTRACT:**We examine limitations of carrier removal with a p-n junction in Raman devices, namely, ineffectiveness at high optical intensities due to the applied field being screened, electrical heat dissipation and the possibility of thermal instability.04/2006; - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**Increasing the amplifying efficiency in silicon-on-insulator waveguides plays a crucial role in future adaptation of this technology for integrated optics applications. Such improvements not only lead to a reduced overall footprint size but also the overall reduction in the operating energy consumption of the device. In this paper, we address the design optimization of silicon optical amplifiers working in the continuous wave domain. We seek to optimize the efficiency of a silicon optical amplifier by varying the cross-section area along the waveguide length that coerces judicious minimization of the pernicious influence of free-carrier absorption and two-photon absorption on Raman amplification. Using a recently proposed semi-analytical technique, we recasted the above problem as a boundary-value problem that contains eight coupled nonlinear differential equations for four waves' powers and four auxiliary functions. The numerical solution of these equations allows one to find the axial profile of the effective mode area (EMA), providing the largest output signal power for given waveguide length, input pump power and a preset, input-facet EMA. We have illustrated utility of our method by applying it to several practically realizable amplification scenarios. In particular, optimizing the EMA profiles with different input-facet EMAs, we calculated the optimum signal gain of a silicon optical amplifier with a given (i.e., preset) amplifier length.IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 03/2010; · 3.47 Impact Factor - [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]

**ABSTRACT:**Since the recent demonstration of chip-scale, silicon-based, photonic devices, silicon photonics provides a viable and promising platform for modern nonlinear optics. The development and improvement of such devices are helped considerably by theoretical predictions based on the solution of the underlying nonlinear propagation equations. In this paper, we review the approximate analytical tools that have been developed for analyzing active and passive silicon waveguides. These analytical tools provide the much needed physical insight that is often lost during numerical simulations. Our starting point is the coupled-amplitude equations that govern the nonlinear dynamics of two optical waves interacting inside a silicon-on-insulator waveguide. In their most general form, these equations take into account not only linear losses, dispersion, and the free-carrier and Raman effects, but also allow for the tapering of the waveguide. Employing approximations based on physical insights, we simplify the equations in a number of situations of practical interest and outline techniques that can be used to examine the influence of intricate nonlinear phenomena as light propagates through a silicon waveguide. In particular, propagation of single pulse through a waveguide of constant cross section is described with a perturbation approach. The process of Raman amplification is analyzed using both purely analytical and semianalytical methods. The former avoids the undepleted-pump approximation and provides approximate expressions that can be used to discuss intensity noise transfer from the pump to the signal in silicon Raman amplifiers. The latter utilizes a variational formalism that leads to a system of nonlinear equations that governs the evolution of signal parameters under the continuous-wave pumping. It can also be used to find an optimum tapering profile of a silicon Raman amplifier that provides the highest net gain for a given pump power.IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics 03/2010; · 3.47 Impact Factor

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