Autonomy and reactions to health-risk information.
ABSTRACT It has been suggested that autonomy promotes enhanced reflection on novel information and reduces defensive or biased information processing. This study investigated how autonomy affected people's reactions to known versus novel health-risk information in relation to three behaviours: sun exposure, alcohol consumption and salt intake. Participants (N=321) completed a measure of autonomy, read either known or novel health-risk information and reported their relative autonomous motivation, attitudes, perceived behavioural control, subjective norm and intentions towards reducing the health-risk behaviour concerned. In line with our hypotheses, the results showed that higher autonomy participants reported greater relative autonomous motivation towards reducing health-risk behaviours than did lower autonomy participants; this effect was mediated by perceptions of the information as less freedom-threatening. The expected interaction between Autonomy and Information Type was not observed. The results indicate that autonomy is associated with greater relative autonomous motivation to engage in health behaviours, and that autonomous motivation may subsequently influence intentions to reduce health-risk behaviour following exposure to health-risk information.
SourceAvailable from: Adrian Parke
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ABSTRACT: Background The aim of the present study was to examine the social-cognitive and motivational factors associated with pre-drinking based on a model integrating motivational constructs from self-determination theory and belief-based constructs from the theory of planned behaviour.MethodsA prospective correlational design was used. Participants (N = 286; 66.4% female) completed self-report measures of past alcohol consumption, autonomous and controlled forms of motivation from self-determination theory, and attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control, and behavioural intentions from the theory of planned behaviour at baseline. Participants reported pre-drinking frequency four weeks later.ResultsVariance-based structural equation modelling showed that the hypothesised model predicted 54 per cent of the variance in pre-drinking intentions at baseline, and 20 per cent of the variance in pre-drinking behaviour at follow-up. Mediation analyses indicated strong, statistically significant effects of autonomous motivation on intentions to pre-drink, partially mediated by attitudes and subjective norms. Intention and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted pre-drinking frequency.Conclusions Results provide support for the hypothesised model relationships. Autonomous motivation, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control were influential in forming students’ intentions to pre-drink. However, consistent with previous findings, the intention–behaviour relationship was relatively weak. Future research should look to non-intentional and volitional processes that may influence pre-drinking in undergraduates.Applied Psychology Health and Well-Being 04/2015; DOI:10.1111/aphw.12044 · 1.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Research demonstrates that a large proportion of individuals have reduced levels of self-awareness of behaviour when gambling, through a process of dissociation (Powell, Hardoon, Derevensky, & Gupta, 1996) and narrowed attention (Diskin & Hodgins, 1999). This can be detrimental to the decision-making process, especially as players become increasingly stimulated, which can negatively impact upon gambling behaviour. Therefore, in an attempt to limit irrational gambling behaviour, and gambling beyond levels at which one had initially intended, emphasis is placed on harm minimisation approaches that attempt to increase self-awareness of behaviour and increase awareness of the probable outcomes of participation in gambling, by providing easily understood and relevant information in a timely fashion. Fundamentally, this refers to the provision of information pertaining to 1) Personal Behavioural Information - information provided to the player regarding amount of time and money spent gambling, and 2) Game Transparency Information – information that outlines to the player how the game operates e.g. probabilities of winning. Structural and situational characteristics of gambling may not however, be conducive to supporting self-regulation and self-control, making the process of facilitating awareness more challenging than one would initially assume. The following paper reviews evidence for the efficacy of strategies aimed at facilitating awareness during gambling, referring to behavioural information and game transparency, as well as problem gambling information and referral.