Decreased Muscle Oxygenation and Increased Arterial Blood Flow in the Non-Exercising Limb During Leg Exercise
ABSTRACT We evaluated arterial blood flow, muscle tissue oxygenation and muscle metabolism in the non-exercising limb during leg cycling exercise. Ten healthy male volunteers performed a graded leg cycling exercise at 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 watts (W) for 5 min each. Tissue oxygenation index (TOI) of the non-exercising left forearm muscle was measured using a near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy (NIR(SRS)), and non-exercising forearm blood flow ((NONEX)FBF) in the brachial artery was also evaluated by a Doppler ultrasound system. We also determined O(2) consumption of the non-exercising forearm muscle (NONEXV(O)(2mus)) by the rate of decrease in O(2)Hb during arterial occlusion at each work rate. TOI was significantly decreased at 160 W (p < 0.01) compared to the baseline. The (NONEX)V(O)(2mus) at each work rate was not significantly increased. In contrast, (NONEX)FBF was significantly increased at 120 W (p < 0.05) and 160 W (p < 0.01) compared to the baseline. These results suggest that the O(2) supply to the non-exercising muscle may be reduced, even though (NONEX)FBF increases at high work rates during leg cycling exercise.
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ABSTRACT: We compared absolute values of regional tissue hemoglobin saturation (StO(2)), reproducibility, and dynamic range of four different instruments on the forearm of adults. The sensors were repositioned 10 times on each subject. Dynamic range was estimated by exercise with subsequent arterial occlusion. Mean StO(2) was 70.1% ± 6.7 with INVOS 5100, 69.4% ± 5.0 with NIRO 200 NX, 63.4% ± 4.5 with NIRO 300, and 60.8% ± 3.6 with OxyPrem. The corresponding reproducibility S(w) was 5.4% (CI 4.4-6.9), 4.4% (CI 3.5-5.2), 4.1% (CI 3.3-4.9), and 2.7% (CI 2.2-3.2), respectively. The dynamic ranges ΔStO(2) were 45.0%, 46.8%, 44.8%, and 27.8%, respectively. In conclusion, the three commercial NIRS instruments showed different absolute values, whereas reproducibility and dynamic range were quite similar.Biomedical Optics Express 11/2011; 2(11):3047-57. DOI:10.1364/BOE.2.003047 · 3.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To examine the hypothesis that the relationship between minute ventilation (VE) and deoxygenation from the intercostal space (IC) would be steady regardless of exercise protocols, if an increase in O2 consumption of the accessory respiratory muscles with an increase of VE brings about deoxygenation in IC, we measured the relationship between VE and O2 saturation in IC (SO2IC) during a constant-load exercise test (CET), and the relationship was compared with that during a ramp incremental exercise test (RIET). Six male subjects performed RIET. On a different day, the subjects performed a moderate and heavy CET (CET_MOD and CET_HVY, respectively). SO2IC decreased from the start of both CET_MOD and CET_HVY and changed little from 2 min. Moreover, SO2IC was significantly lower during CET_HVY than during CET_MOD. In comparison between RIET and CET_HVY at the similar VE level, SO2IC was significantly higher during CET_HVY than RIET. These results suggest that the decrease in SO2IC was caused not only by an increase in O2 consumption in IC with an increase in VE but also by a decrease in O2 supply.Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 01/2013; 789:143-8. DOI:10.1007/978-1-4614-7411-1_20 · 2.01 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to elucidate changes in mean blood flow and oscillatory blood flow patterns to the inactive limb during leg cycle exercise in hypoxia. We hypothesized that oscillatory antegrade and retrograde blood flows to the nonworking limb would increase during incremental cycle exercise under hypoxic condition. Eight males participated in this study. Two maximal exercise tests were conducted on a semirecumbent cycle ergometer while subjects inhaled a normoxic (inspired oxygen fraction [FIO2] = 0.21) or hypoxic gas mixture (FIO2 = 0.12). The exercise began at an initial power output of 30 W, and workload was increased by 30 W every 2 min until exhaustion. Brachial artery blood velocity and diameter were simultaneously recorded during exercise using Doppler ultrasonography. Blood flow was calculated using the cross-sectional area of the brachial artery and time-averaged mean blood velocity. Mean blood flow decreased until 120 W in both trials (P < 0.05), and the magnitude of the reduction in mean blood flow was not different between two trials. However, the extent of changes in antegrade and retrograde blood flows during submaximal exercise in hypoxia was greater than that in normoxia (normoxia vs hypoxia: antegrade blood flow at 120 W = 145.4 ± 10.3 vs 172.4 ± 9.0 mL·min and retrograde blood flow at 120 W = -89.1 ± 4.9 vs -118.1 ± 6.2 mL·min, P < 0.05). These results indicate that hypoxia has a significant effect on oscillatory antegrade/retrograde blood flow patterns in nonworking limb during cycling exercise.Medicine and science in sports and exercise 06/2012; 44(6):1035-42. DOI:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31824294f9 · 4.46 Impact Factor