The role of ion channels in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.
ABSTRACT Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is an important mechanism by which localized flow of blood in small resistance pulmonary arteries is matched to alveolar ventilation. This chapter discusses the role of several potassium and calcium channels in HPV, both in enhancing calcium influx into smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and in stimulating the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, thus increasing cytosolic calcium. The increase in calcium sensitivity caused by hypoxia is reviewed in Chapter 19. Particular attention is paid to the activity of the L-type calcium channels which increase calcium influx as a result of membrane depolarization and also increase calcium influx at any given membrane potential in response to hypoxia. In addition, activation of the L-type calcium channel may, in the absence of any calcium influx, cause calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Many of these mechanisms have been reported to be involved in both HPV and in normoxic contraction of the ductus arteriosus.
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ABSTRACT: Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels in arterial myocytes can mediate Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and, thus, induce contraction without the need of extracellular Ca(2+) influx. This metabotropic action of Ca(2+) channels (denoted as calcium-channel-induced calcium release or CCICR) involves activation of G proteins and the phospholipase C-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate pathway. Here, we show a form of vascular tone regulation by extracellular ATP that depends on the modulation of CCICR. In isolated arterial myocytes, ATP produced facilitation of Ca(2+)-channel activation and, subsequently, a strong potentiation of CCICR. The facilitation of L-type channel still occurred after full blockade of purinergic receptors and inhibition of G proteins with GDPbetaS, thus suggesting that ATP directly interacts with Ca(2+) channels. The effects of ATP appear to be highly selective, because they were not mimicked by other nucleotides (ADP or UTP) or vasoactive agents, such as norepinephrine, acetylcholine, or endothelin-1. We have also shown that CCICR can trigger arterial cerebral vasoconstriction in the absence of extracellular calcium and that this phenomenon is greatly facilitated by extracellular ATP. Although, at low concentrations, ATP does not induce arterial contraction per se, this agent markedly potentiates contractility of partially depolarized or primed arteries. Hence, the metabotropic action of L-type Ca(2+) channels could have a high impact on vascular pathophysiology, because, even in the absence of Ca(2+) channel opening, it might mediate elevations of cytosolic Ca(2+) and contraction in partially depolarized vascular smooth muscle cells exposed to small concentrations of agonists.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 04/2006; 103(11):4316-21. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is initiated by inhibition of O2-sensitive, voltage-gated (Kv) channels in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Kv inhibition depolarizes membrane potential (E(M)), thereby activating Ca2+ influx via voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. HPV is weak in extrapulmonary, conduit pulmonary arteries (PA) and strong in precapillary resistance arteries. We hypothesized that regional heterogeneity in HPV reflects a longitudinal gradient in the function/expression of PASMC O2-sensitive Kv channels. In adult male Sprague Dawley rats, constrictions to hypoxia, the Kv blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), and correolide, a Kv1.x channel inhibitor, were endothelium-independent and greater in resistance versus conduit PAs. Moreover, HPV was dependent on Kv-inhibition, being completely inhibited by pretreatment with 4-AP. Kv1.2, 1.5, Kv2.1, Kv3.1b, Kv4.3, and Kv9.3. mRNA increased as arterial caliber decreased; however, only Kv1.5 protein expression was greater in resistance PAs. Resistance PASMCs had greater K+ current (I(K)) and a more hyperpolarized E(M) and were uniquely O2- and correolide-sensitive. The O2-sensitive current (active at -65 mV) was resistant to iberiotoxin, with minimal tityustoxin sensitivity. In resistance PASMCs, 4-AP and hypoxia inhibited I(K) 57% and 49%, respectively, versus 34% for correolide. Intracellular administration of anti-Kv1.5 antibodies inhibited correolide's effects. The hypoxia-sensitive, correolide-insensitive I(K) (15%) was conducted by Kv2.1. Anti-Kv1.5 and anti-Kv2.1 caused additive depolarization in resistance PASMCs (Kv1.5>Kv2.1) and inhibited hypoxic depolarization. Heterologously expressed human PASMC Kv1.5 generated an O2- and correolide-sensitive I(K) like that in resistance PASMCs. In conclusion, Kv1.5 and Kv2.1 account for virtually all the O2-sensitive current. HPV occurs in a Kv-enriched resistance zone because resistance PASMCs preferentially express O2-sensitive Kv-channels.Circulation Research 08/2004; 95(3):308-18. · 11.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is unique to pulmonary arteries, and it aids ventilation/perfusion matching. However, in diseases such as emphysema, HPV can promote hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. We recently showed that hypoxia constricts pulmonary arteries in part by increasing cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) accumulation in the smooth muscle and, thereby, Ca(2+) release by ryanodine receptors. We now report on the role of cADPR in HPV in isolated rat pulmonary arteries and in the rat lung in situ. In isolated pulmonary arteries, the membrane-permeant cADPR antagonist, 8-bromo-cADPR, blocked sustained HPV by blocking Ca(2+) release from smooth muscle ryanodine-sensitive stores in the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Most importantly, we showed that 8-bromo-cADPR blocks HPV induced by alveolar hypoxia in the ventilated rat lung in situ. Inhibition of HPV was achieved without affecting (1) constriction by membrane depolarization and voltage-gated Ca(2+) influx, (2) the release (by hypoxia) of an endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor, or (3) endothelium-dependent vasoconstriction. Our findings suggest that HPV is both triggered and maintained by cADPR in the rat lung in situ.Circulation Research 08/2001; 89(1):77-83. · 11.86 Impact Factor