Article

The Role of Ion Channels in Hypoxic Pulmonary Vasoconstriction

VA Medical Center, 1 Veterans Drive, 111C, Minneapolis, MN, 55417, USA.
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology (Impact Factor: 2.01). 01/2010; 661:3-14. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-60761-500-2_1
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is an important mechanism by which localized flow of blood in small resistance pulmonary arteries is matched to alveolar ventilation. This chapter discusses the role of several potassium and calcium channels in HPV, both in enhancing calcium influx into smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and in stimulating the release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, thus increasing cytosolic calcium. The increase in calcium sensitivity caused by hypoxia is reviewed in Chapter 19. Particular attention is paid to the activity of the L-type calcium channels which increase calcium influx as a result of membrane depolarization and also increase calcium influx at any given membrane potential in response to hypoxia. In addition, activation of the L-type calcium channel may, in the absence of any calcium influx, cause calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Many of these mechanisms have been reported to be involved in both HPV and in normoxic contraction of the ductus arteriosus.

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    • "The hypoxic increase in [Ca 2+ ] i in PASMCs results from extracellular Ca 2+ influx, which may occur due to the inhibition of K V channels and activation of SOC channels (Mauban et al., 2005;Moudgil et al., 2005;Aaronson et al., 2006;Wang & Zheng, 2010;Weir et al., 2010). Extensive studies have consistently revealed that intracellular Ca 2+ release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) through RyRs plays an important role in the hypoxic increase in [Ca 2+ ] i in PASMCs and attendant HPV. "
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia causes a large increase in [Ca2+]i and attendant contraction in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs), but not in systemic artery SMCs. The different responses meet the respective functional needs in these two distinct vascular myocytes; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well known. We and other investigators have provided extensive evidence to reveal that voltage-dependent K+ (KV) channels, canonical transient receptor potential (TRPC) channels, ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release channels (RyRs), cyclic adenosine diphosphate-ribose, FK506 binding protein 12.6, protein kinase C, NADPH oxidase and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the essential effectors and signaling intermediates in the hypoxic increase in [Ca2+]i in PASMCs and HPV, but they may not primarily underlie the diverse cellular responses in pulmonary and systemic vascular myocytes. Hypoxia significantly increases mitochondrial ROS generation in PASMCs, which can induce intracellular Ca2+ release by opening RyRs, and may also cause extracellular Ca2+ influx by inhibiting KV channels and activating TRPC channels, leading to a large increase in [Ca2+]i in PASMCs and HPV. In contrast, hypoxia has no or a minor effect on mitochondrial ROS generation in systemic SMCs, thereby causing no change or a negligible increase in [Ca2+]i and contraction. Further preliminary work indicates that Rieske iron-sulfur protein in the mitochondrial complex III may perhaps serve as a key initial molecular determinant for the hypoxic increase in [Ca2+]i in PASMCs and HPV, suggesting its potential important role in different cellular changes to respond to hypoxic stimulation in pulmonary and systemic artery myocytes. All these findings have greatly improved our understanding of the molecular processes for the differential hypoxic Ca2+ and contractile responses in vascular SMCs from distinct pulmonary and systemic circulation systems.
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