Article

Osteocyte: the unrecognized side of bone tissue.

INSERM Research Unit 658, Centre Hospitalier Régional, 1 rue Porte Madeleine, 45 032 Orleans, France.
Osteoporosis International (Impact Factor: 4.04). 03/2010; 21(9):1457-69. DOI: 10.1007/s00198-010-1194-5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Osteocytes represent 95% of all bone cells. These cells are old osteoblasts that occupy the lacunar space and are surrounded by the bone matrix. They possess cytoplasmic dendrites that form a canalicular network for communication between osteocytes and the bone surface. They express some biomarkers (osteopontin, beta3 integrin, CD44, dentin matrix protein 1, sclerostin, phosphate-regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein, or E11/gp38) and have a mechano-sensing role that is dependent upon the frequency, intensity, and duration of strain. DISCUSSION: The mechanical information transmitted into the cytoplasm also triggers a biological cascade, starting with NO and PGE(2) and followed by Wnt/beta catenin signaling. This information is transmitted to the bone surface through the canalicular network, particularly to the lining cells, and is able to trigger bone remodeling by directing the osteoblast activity and the osteoclastic resorption. Furthermore, the osteocyte death seems to play also an important role. The outcome of micro-cracks in the vicinity of osteocytes may interrupt the canalicular network and trigger cell apoptosis in the immediate surrounding environment. This apoptosis appears to transmit a message to the bone surface and activate remodeling. The osteocyte network also plays a recognized endocrine role, particularly concerning phosphate regulation and vitamin D metabolism. Both the suppression of estrogen following menopause and chronic use of systemic glucocorticoids induce osteocyte apoptosis. On the other hand, physical activity has a positive impact in the reduction of apoptosis. In addition, some osteocyte molecular elements like sclerostin, connexin 43, E11/gp38, and DKK1 are emerging as promising targets for the treatment of various osteo-articular pathologies.

1 Bookmark
 · 
286 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Age, pre-existing renal osteodistrophy, impaired renal function, and chronic use of immunosuppressive drugs are the main factors involved in the onset and development of bone metabolism disturbances and skeletal alterations occurring after renal transplantation. However, at the state of the art, no reports have analyzed the additional post-menopausal physiological mechanisms associated with the onset and development of bone complications in renal transplant recipients. Methods We measured by means of molecular strategies (enzyme-linked immunoassay, chemiluminescence) the serum levels of Sclerostin and Dickkopf-1 (DKK1), two major antagonists of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, and several bone resorption/formation biomarkers (N-terminal procollagen type 1, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and serum C-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen) in 19 post-menopausal kidney transplant patients and 12 post-menopausal chronic kidney disease patients (CKD group) matched for age and renal function. Results Our results showed that the levels of both Wnt antagonists were similar in the two study groups (P = .15 and .96, respectively). Additionally, no correlation was found between Sclerostin and DKK1 serum levels in all patients included in the study (R2 = 0.03, P = .2). After statistical analysis, we found no differences in the bone resorption/formation biomarkers between renal transplant and CKD patients. Multivariate analysis showed that Sclerostin levels were significantly positively correlated with serum phosphorus levels (P = .008) and inversely correlated with renal function (P = .026). Surprisingly, no significant correlation was found between all the analyzed demographic and clinical parameters and DKK1. Conclusions Our study demonstrated for the first time that renal transplantation per se and immunosuppressive treatments do not represent additional factors contributing to bone metabolic/biochemical alterations in post-menopausal women. However, our results emphasized that a better preservation of the graft function could significantly slow down the progression of bone metabolic deregulations and prevent clinical bone complications.
    Transplantation Proceedings 09/2014; 46(7):2241–2246. · 0.95 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to predict osteoporosis risk as decreasing muscle mass and to declare the cut-off value of low muscle mass in an elderly Korean population. This study was based on data from the 2008-2010 Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Surveys (KNHANES). The subjects included 1,308 men and 1,171 women over 65 yr. Bone mineral density (BMD) and appendicular skeletal muscle (ASM) were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and appendicular skeletal muscle was adjusted by height as a marker of sarcopenia. After confirming the correlation between low muscle mass and BMD, the best cut-off value of muscle mass to estimate osteoporosis was suggested through the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. For both men and women, BMD correlated positively with low muscle mass when ASM/Ht(2) was used as a marker for sarcopenia. The ROC curve showed that ASM/Ht(2) was the best marker for osteoporosis at a cut-off value of 6.85 kg/m(2) for men and 5.96 kg/m(2) for women. When these cut-off values were used to determine sarcopenia, the risk of osteoporosis increased 4.14 times in men and 1.88 times in women. In particular, men (OR 2.12) with sarcopenia were more greatly affected than women (OR 1.15), even after adjusting for osteoporosis risk factors. In elderly Korean people, sarcopenia is positively correlated with BMD and there is a strong correlation between sarcopenia and osteoporosis with risk of bone fracture.
    Journal of Korean Medical Science 07/2014; 29(7):995-1000. · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Sclerostin regulates bone formation by inhibiting Wnt pathway signaling. Low circulating sclerostin levels cause high bone mass. We hypothesized that postmenopausal women with increased sclerostin levels have a greater risk for osteoporosis-related fractures. We examined the association between circulating sclerostin together with bone turnover markers and osteoporosis-related fracture risk in 707 postmenopausal women, in a population-based study with a mean follow-up period of 5.2 ± 1.3 years. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to analyze fracture risk, adjusted for age, body mass index, and other confounding risk factors. High sclerostin levels were strongly associated with increased fracture risk. After adjustment for age and other confounders, the relative fracture risk was more than sevenfold among postmenopausal women for each 1-SD increment increase in sclerostin level. Women in the highest quartile of sclerostin levels had about a 15-fold increase in fracture risk. Results were similar when we compared sclerostin at the 1-year visit to an average of two to three annual measurements. Fracture risk attributable to sclerostin levels was 56.6% in the highest quartile. Only high levels of bone resorption markers (plasma cross-linked C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen [p-CTx], urinary CTx [u-CTx], and urinary N-telopeptide of type 1 collagen [u-NTx]) were predictive of osteoporosis-related fractures but at much lower hazard ratio (HR) values than that of serum sclerostin. Associations between sclerostin levels and fracture risk were independent of bone mineral density and other confounding risk factors. High sclerostin levels are a strong and independent risk factor for osteoporosis-related fractures among postmenopausal women. © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
    Journal of bone and mineral research: the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research 12/2012; 27(12). · 6.04 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
189 Downloads
Available from
May 27, 2014

Gaël Y Rochefort