Cost-Effectiveness of Strategies to Improve HIV Testing and Receipt of Results: Economic Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Duke University, PO Box 17969, Durham, NC 27715, USA.
Journal of General Internal Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.42). 03/2010; 25(6):556-63. DOI: 10.1007/s11606-010-1265-5
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The CDC recommends routine voluntary HIV testing of all patients 13-64 years of age. Despite this recommendation, HIV testing rates are low even among those at identifiable risk, and many patients do not return to receive their results.
To examine the costs and benefits of strategies to improve HIV testing and receipt of results.
Cost-effectiveness analysis based on a Markov model. Acceptance of testing, return rates, and related costs were derived from a randomized trial of 251 patients; long-term costs and health outcomes were derived from the literature. SETTING/TARGET POPULATION: Primary-care patients with unknown HIV status.
Comparison of three intervention models for HIV counseling and testing: Model A = traditional HIV counseling and testing; Model B = nurse-initiated routine screening with traditional HIV testing and counseling; Model C = nurse-initiated routine screening with rapid HIV testing and streamlined counseling.
Life-years, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), costs and incremental cost-effectiveness.
Without consideration of the benefit from reduced HIV transmission, Model A resulted in per-patient lifetime discounted costs of $48,650 and benefits of 16.271 QALYs. Model B increased lifetime costs by $53 and benefits by 0.0013 QALYs (corresponding to 0.48 quality-adjusted life days). Model C cost $66 more than Model A with an increase of 0.0018 QALYs (0.66 quality-adjusted life days) and an incremental cost-effectiveness of $36,390/QALY. When we included the benefit from reduced HIV transmission, Model C cost $10,660/QALY relative to Model A. The cost-effectiveness of Model C was robust in sensitivity analyses.
In a primary-care population, nurse-initiated routine screening with rapid HIV testing and streamlined counseling increased rates of testing and receipt of test results and was cost-effective compared with traditional HIV testing strategies.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective To assess the effects of rapid voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) for HIV on HIV incidence and uptake of HIV/AIDS services in people at high risk for HIV exposure. Design Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources We searched PubMed, EMBASE, AIDSearch, LILACS, Global Health, Medline Africa, PsychInfo, CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, Cochrane HIV/AIDS Group Specialized Register and grey literature from 1 January 2001 to 5 June 2014 without language restriction. Data selection We included controlled studies that compared rapid VCT with conventional testing among people at risk for HIV exposure. Data extraction Two reviewers extracted data. We used Cochrane risk of bias tool and GRADE criteria: risk of bias, inconsistency, indirectness, imprecision and publication bias. For observational studies we used the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We used the PRISMA-Equity reporting guideline. Results From 2441 articles, we included 8 randomised controlled trials and 5 observational studies. Rapid VCT was associated with a threefold increase in HIV-testing uptake (relative risk (RR)=2.95 95% CI 1.69 to 5.16) and a twofold increase in the receipt of test results (RR=2.14, 95% CI 1.08 to 4.24). Women accepted testing more often than men in rapid VCT arm, but no differences in effect for age or socioeconomic status. Observational studies also showed rapid VCT led to higher rates of uptake of testing. Heterogeneity was high. A cluster-randomised trial reported an 11% reduction in HIV incidence in intervention communities (RR=0.89, 95% CI=0.63 to 1.24) over 3 years trial. Conclusions Rapid VCT in health facilities and communities was associated with a large increase in HIV-testing uptake and receipt of results. This has implications for WHO guidelines. The routine use of rapid VCT may also help avoid human rights violations among marginalised populations where testing may occur without informed consent and where existing stigma may create barriers to testing.
    BMJ Open 12/2014; 4(12):e006859. DOI:10.1136/bmjopen-2014-006859 · 2.06 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) focus on funding HIV prevention interventions likely to have high impact on the HIV epidemic. In its most recent funding announcement to state and local health department grantees, CDC required that health departments allocate the majority of funds to four HIV prevention interventions: HIV testing, prevention with HIV-positives and their partners, condom distribution and policy initiatives. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature to determine the extent of the cost-effectiveness evidence for each of those interventions. We searched for US-based studies published through October 2012. The studies that qualified for inclusion contained original analyses that reported costs per quality-adjusted life-year saved, life-year saved, HIV infection averted, or new HIV diagnosis. For each study, paired reviewers performed a detailed review and data extraction. We reported the number of studies related to each intervention and summarized key cost-effectiveness findings according to intervention type. Costs were converted to 2011 US dollars. Of the 50 articles that met the inclusion criteria, 33 related to HIV testing, 15 assessed prevention with HIV-positives and partners, three reported on condom distribution, and one reported on policy initiatives. Methodologies and cost-effectiveness metrics varied across studies and interventions, making them difficult to compare. Our review provides an updated summary of the published evidence of cost effectiveness of four key HIV prevention interventions recommended by CDC. With the exception of testing-related interventions, including partner services, where economic evaluations suggest that testing often can be cost effective, more cost-effectiveness research is needed to help guide the most efficient use of HIV prevention funds.
    Applied Health Economics and Health Policy 12/2014; 13(2). DOI:10.1007/s40258-014-0142-5
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background In recent years community-based voluntary counselling and testing sites (CB-VCT) for men having sex with men (MSM) have been established in larger cities in Germany to offer more opportunities for HIV testing. Increasingly, CB-VCTs also offer testing for other bacterial sexually transmitted infections. In Hamburg, tests in CB-VCTs are offered free and anonymously. Data on demographics and sexual risk behaviours are collected with a paper questionnaire.Methods Questionnaire data from the MSM CB-VCT in Hamburg were linked with serological test results for HIV and syphilis, and with rectal and pharyngeal swab results for gonorrhoea and chlamydia. MSM were defined as males reporting male sex partners. CB-VCT clients were characterized demographically, and associations between sexual behaviour variables and diagnosis of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) were analysed by bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis.ResultsAmong the male clients of the CB-VCT in 2011¿2012 who were tested for HIV or any STI 1476 reported male sex partners. Unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) was reported as reason for testing by 61% of the clients. Forty-one of 1413 clients testing for HIV were tested positive (2.9%). Twenty-four of 1380 clients testing for syphilis required treatment (1.7%). Tests for simultaneous detection of N. gonorrhoea and Chlamydia trachomatis were conducted on 882 pharyngeal and 642 rectal swabs, revealing 58 (=6.6%) pharyngeal and 71 (=11.1%) rectal infections with one or both pathogens. In multivariate logistic regression analysis number of partners, UAI (OR=2.42) and relying on visual impression when selecting sex partners (OR = 2.92) were associated with increased risks for diagnosis of syphilis or a rectal STI. Syphilis or rectal STI diagnosis (OR=4.52) were associated with increased risk for HIV diagnosis.Conclusions The MSM CB-VCT in Hamburg reaches clients at high risk for HIV and STIs. The diagnosis of syphilis or a rectal STI was associated with increased odds of testing positive for HIV. Due to the high prevalence of curable bacterial STI among clients and because syphilis and rectal bacterial STI may facilitate HIV transmission, MSM asking for HIV tests in CB-VCTs should also be offered tests for other bacterial STIs.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 01/2015; 15(1):14. DOI:10.1186/s12879-014-0738-2 · 2.56 Impact Factor

Full-text (3 Sources)

Available from
Oct 20, 2014