Article

Sestrin as a feedback inhibitor of TOR that prevents age-related pathologies.

Laboratory of Gene Regulation and Signal Transduction, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of California San Diego (UCSD), La Jolla, CA 92093-0723, USA.
Science (Impact Factor: 31.48). 03/2010; 327(5970):1223-8. DOI: 10.1126/science.1182228
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Sestrins are conserved proteins that accumulate in cells exposed to stress, potentiate adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and inhibit activation of target of rapamycin (TOR). We show that the abundance of Drosophila sestrin (dSesn) is increased upon chronic TOR activation through accumulation of reactive oxygen species that cause activation of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase and transcription factor Forkhead box O (FoxO). Loss of dSesn resulted in age-associated pathologies including triglyceride accumulation, mitochondrial dysfunction, muscle degeneration, and cardiac malfunction, which were prevented by pharmacological activation of AMPK or inhibition of TOR. Hence, dSesn appears to be a negative feedback regulator of TOR that integrates metabolic and stress inputs and prevents pathologies caused by chronic TOR activation that may result from diminished autophagic clearance of damaged mitochondria, protein aggregates, or lipids.

1 Bookmark
 · 
158 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the United States and is mainly caused by environmental UV radiation. Reducing skin cancer incidence is becoming an urgent issue. The stress-inducible protein Sestrin2 (Sesn2) plays an important role in maintaining redox and metabolic homeostasis and their related pathologies. However, the role of Sesn2 in cancer remains unclear. Here we show that UVB radiation induces Sesn2 expression in normal human keratinocytes, mouse skin, normal human melanocytes, and melanoma cells. In addition, Sesn2 promotes AKT activation through a PTEN-dependent mechanism. Sesn2 deletion or knockdown sensitizes squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells to 5-fluorouracil-induced apoptosis, and melanoma cells to UVB- and vemurafenib-induced apoptosis. In mice, Sesn2 knockdown suppresses tumor growth from injected human SCC and melanoma cells. Lastly, as compared with normal skin, Sesn2 is up-regulated in both human skin SCC and melanoma. Our findings demonstrate that Sesn2 promotes AKT activation and survival in response to UVB stress and chemotherapeutics, and suggest that Sesn2 is oncogenic in skin SCC and melanoma.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2014; 289(52). DOI:10.1074/jbc.M114.595397 · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) kinase is a sensor of different environmental conditions and regulator of cell growth, metabolism, and autophagy. mTORC1 is activated by Rag GTPases, working as RagA:RagB and RagC:RagD heterodimers. Rags control mTORC1 activity by tethering mTORC1 to the lysosomes where it is activated by Rheb GTPase. RagA:RagB, active in its GTP-bound form, is inhibited by GATOR1 complex, a GTPase-activating protein, and GATOR1 is in turn negatively regulated by GATOR2 complex. Sestrins are stress-responsive proteins that inhibit mTORC1 via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and tuberous sclerosis complex. Here we report an AMPK-independent mechanism of mTORC1 inhibition by Sestrins mediated by their interaction with GATOR2. As a result of this interaction, the Sestrins suppress mTOR lysosomal localization in a Rag-dependent manner. This mechanism is potentially involved in mTORC1 regulation by amino acids, rotenone, and tunicamycin, connecting stress response with mTORC1 inhibition. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The regulation of AMPK in the ischemic heart remains incompletely understood. Recent evidence implicates the role of Sestrin2 in the AMPK signaling pathway, and it is hypothesized that Sestrin2 plays an influential role during myocardial ischemia to promote AMPK activation. Sestrin2 protein was found to be expressed in adult cardiomyocytes and accumulated in the heart during ischemic conditions. Sestrin2 knockout (KO) mice were used to determine the importance of Sestrin2 during ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury. When wild-type (WT) and Sestrin2 KO mice were subjected to in vivo I/R, myocardial infarct size was significantly greater in Sestrin2 KO compared with WT hearts. Similarly, Langendorff perfused hearts indicated exacerbated postischemic contractile function in Sestrin2 KO hearts compared with WT. Ischemic AMPK activation was found to be impaired in the Sestrin2 KO hearts. Immunoprecipitation of Sestrin2 demonstrated an association with AMPK. Moreover, liver kinase B1 (LKB1), a major AMPK upstream kinase, was associated with the Sestrin2-AMPK complex in a time-dependent manner during ischemia, whereas this interaction was nearly abolished in Sestrin2 KO hearts. Thus, Sestrin2 plays an important role in cardioprotection against I/R injury, serving as an LKB1-AMPK scaffold to initiate AMPK activation during ischemic insults.-Morrison, A., Chen, L. Wang, J., Zhang, M., Yang, H., Ma, Y., Budanov, A., Lee, J. H., Karin, M., Li, J. Sestrin2 promotes LKB1-mediated AMPK activation in the ischemic heart.
    The FASEB Journal 11/2014; 29(2). DOI:10.1096/fj.14-258814 · 5.48 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Download
94 Downloads
Available from
Jun 3, 2014