Mitochondrial metabolism modulation: a new therapeutic approach for Parkinson's disease.
ABSTRACT Mitochondrial metabolism is a highly orchestrated phenomenon in which many enzyme systems cooperate in a variety of pathways to dictate cellular fate. As well as its vital role in cellular energy metabolism (ATP production), mitochondria are powerful organelles that regulate reactive oxygen species production, NAD+/NADH ratio and programmed cell death. In addition, mitochondrial abnormalities have been well recognized to contribute to degenerative diseases, like Parkinson's disease (PD). Particularly a deficiency in the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I and cristae disruption have been consistently described in PD. Moreover, the products of PD-familial genes, including alpha-synuclein, Parkin, PINK1, DJ-1, LRRK2 and HTR2A, were shown to localize to the mitochondria under certain conditions. It seems that PD has a mitochondrial component so events that would modulate normal mitochondrial functions may compromise neuronal survival. However, it remains an open question whether alterations of these pathways lead to different aspects of PD or whether they converge at a point that is the common denominator of PD pathogenesis. In this review we will focus on mitochondrial metabolic control and its implications on sirtuins activation, microtubule dynamics and autophagic-lysosomal pathway. We will address mitochondrial metabolism modulation as a new promising therapeutic tool for PD.
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ABSTRACT: Neurodegenerative diseases are a common late-life scourge for which diseasemodifying treatments are sorely needed. Mitochondrial perturbation is commonly observed in these diseases, so pursuing treatment development strategies that target mitochondria or processes affected by mitochondria seems reasonable. This review discusses the rationale underlying past and current efforts to treat neurodegenerative diseases using mitochondrial medicine, and tries to predict how future efforts might proceed.Pharmaceuticals. 01/2009;
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ABSTRACT: While the etiology of Parkinson's disease remains largely elusive, there is accumulating evidence suggesting that mitochondrial dysfunction occurs prior to the onset of symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Mitochondria are remarkably primed to play a vital role in neuronal cell survival since they are key regulators of energy metabolism (as ATP producers), of intracellular calcium homeostasis, of NAD(+)/NADH ratio, and of endogenous reactive oxygen species production and programmed cell death. In this paper, we focus on mitochondrial dysfunction-mediated alpha-synuclein aggregation. We highlight some of the findings that provide proof of evidence for a mitochondrial metabolism control in Parkinson's disease, namely, mitochondrial regulation of microtubule-dependent cellular traffic and autophagic lysosomal pathway. The knowledge that microtubule alterations may lead to autophagic deficiency and may compromise the cellular degradation mechanisms that culminate in the progressive accumulation of aberrant protein aggregates shields new insights to the way we address Parkinson's disease. In line with this knowledge, an innovative window for new therapeutic strategies aimed to restore microtubule network may be unlocked.Parkinson's disease. 01/2011; 2011:693761.
Article: Mitochondrial fusion/fission, transport and autophagy in Parkinson's disease: when mitochondria get nasty.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Understanding the molecular basis of Parkinson's disease (PD) has proven to be a major challenge in the field of neurodegenerative diseases. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of PD, a growing body of evidence has highlighted the role of mitochondrial dysfunction and the disruption of the mechanisms of mitochondrial dynamics in PD and other parkinsonian disorders. In this paper, we comment on the recent advances in how changes in the mitochondrial function and mitochondrial dynamics (fusion/fission, transport, and clearance) contribute to neurodegeneration, specifically focusing on PD. We also evaluate the current controversies in those issues and discuss the role of fusion/fission dynamics in the mitochondrial lifecycle and maintenance. We propose that cellular demise and neurodegeneration in PD are due to the interplay between mitochondrial dysfunction, mitochondrial trafficking disruption, and impaired autophagic clearance.Parkinson's disease. 01/2011; 2011:767230.