Mitochondrial metabolism modulation: a new therapeutic approach for Parkinson's disease.
ABSTRACT Mitochondrial metabolism is a highly orchestrated phenomenon in which many enzyme systems cooperate in a variety of pathways to dictate cellular fate. As well as its vital role in cellular energy metabolism (ATP production), mitochondria are powerful organelles that regulate reactive oxygen species production, NAD+/NADH ratio and programmed cell death. In addition, mitochondrial abnormalities have been well recognized to contribute to degenerative diseases, like Parkinson's disease (PD). Particularly a deficiency in the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I and cristae disruption have been consistently described in PD. Moreover, the products of PD-familial genes, including alpha-synuclein, Parkin, PINK1, DJ-1, LRRK2 and HTR2A, were shown to localize to the mitochondria under certain conditions. It seems that PD has a mitochondrial component so events that would modulate normal mitochondrial functions may compromise neuronal survival. However, it remains an open question whether alterations of these pathways lead to different aspects of PD or whether they converge at a point that is the common denominator of PD pathogenesis. In this review we will focus on mitochondrial metabolic control and its implications on sirtuins activation, microtubule dynamics and autophagic-lysosomal pathway. We will address mitochondrial metabolism modulation as a new promising therapeutic tool for PD.
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ABSTRACT: Several sporadic neurodegenerative diseases display phenomena that directly or indirectly relate to mitochondrial function. Data suggesting altered mitochondrial function in these diseases could arise from mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are reviewed. Approaches for manipulating mitochondrial function and minimizing the downstream consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction are discussed.Current pharmaceutical design 09/2011; 17(31):3356-73. · 4.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder, characterized by the selective loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons, and the presence of intracellular insoluble proteinaceous inclusions, known as Lewy Bodies. Although PD etiopathogenesis remains elusive, the leading hypothesis for the death of specific groups of neurons establishes that mitochondrial dysfunction, alterations in the ubiquitin-proteasomal system (UPS), and oxidative stress are major events that act synergistically causing this devastating disease. In this review we will focus on mitochondrial impairment and its implications on proteasomal function and alpha-synuclein aggregation. We will address the role of mitochondria and proteasome cross-talk in the neuronal loss that leads to PD and discuss how this knowledge might further improve patient therapy.Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 01/2010; 2:17. · 5.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We originally discovered TERE1 as a potential tumor suppressor protein based upon reduced expression in bladder and prostate cancer specimens and growth inhibition of tumor cell lines/xenografts upon ectopic expression. Analysis of TERE1 (aka UBIAD1) has shown it is a prenyltransferase enzyme in the natural bio-synthetic pathways for both vitamin K-2 and COQ10 production and exhibits multiple subcellular localizations including mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and golgi. Vitamin K-2 is involved in mitochondrial electron transport, SXR nuclear hormone receptor signaling and redox cycling: together these functions may form the basis for tumor suppressor function. To gain further insight into mechanisms of growth suppression and enzymatic regulation of TERE1 we isolated TERE1 associated proteins and identified the WD40 repeat, mitochondrial protein TBL2. We examined whether disease specific mutations in TERE1 affected interactions with TBL2 and the role of each protein in altering mitochondrial function, ROS/RNS production and SXR target gene regulation. Biochemical binding assays demonstrated a direct, high affinity interaction between TERE1 and TBL2 proteins; TERE1 was localized to both mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial membranes whereas TBL2 was predominantly mitochondrial; multiple independent single amino acid substitutions in TERE1 which cause a human hereditary corneal disease reduced binding to TBL2 strongly suggesting the relevance of this interaction. Ectopic TERE1 expression elevated mitochondrial trans-membrane potential, oxidative stress, NO production, and activated SXR targets. A TERE1-TBL2 complex likely functions in oxidative/nitrosative stress, lipid metabolism, and SXR signaling pathways in its role as a tumor suppressor. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 04/2013; · 3.06 Impact Factor