In this study, the authors examined a possible role of measurements of end-tidal carbon monoxide (CO), corrected for inhaled CO (ETCOc), as a noninvasive screening tool for hemoglobinopathies and as an indicator for when transfusions would be required in patients receiving chronic transfusions. ETCOc measurements were obtained in subjects with sickle cell disease (n = 18), thalassemia (n = 21), and healthy controls (n = 62). ETCOc values less than 3 parts per million (ppm) yielded a positive predictive value of 93% and negative predictive value of 94% in identifying hemoglobinopathies. Subsequently, 7 subjects with thalassemia had laboratory parameters and ETCOc measured over 2 transfusion cycles. ETCOc values were 4.90 +/- 0.32 ppm (mean +/- SD), with 89% of values being above normal (>or=3 ppm). Pretransfusion ETCOc levels significantly correlated with pretransfusion reticulocyte count (r = .96, P <.001), but not with pretransfusion hemoglobin (r = .44, P = .16) or pretransfusion soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR, r = .52, P = .10). In conclusion, we found that patients with hemoglobinopathies have ETCOc values above the range for healthy controls and ETCOc measurements can be used as an adjunct to hemoglobin measurements to determine the proper timing of transfusions.
"Through induction of HO-1, endogenous CO production could be increased by hypoxia, heavy metals, heme, exogenous CO, pro-inflammatory cytokines, hyperglycemia and hormones , and endogenously generated NO . Thus, ECO may serve as a marker in diabetes , cirrhosis  hemoglobinopathies  asthma , cystic fibrosis , bronchiectasis , and respiratory tract infections . In our study, exhaled CO levels were high in the secretory phase, reaching their highest levels in the premenstrual phase. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Nitric oxide (NO) production and carbon monoxide (CO) production are increased in inflammatory lung diseases. Although there are some pieces of evidence for hormonal modulation by estrogen, little is known about exhaled NO and CO during the ovarian cycle. In 23 subjects, we measured exhaled NO and CO by an online analyzer. Significantly higher levels of exhaled NO were found at the midcycle compared with those in the premenstrual period or during menstruation. Higher levels of CO were after ovulation and reached a peak in the premenstrual phase. The lowest levels of CO were observed in the first days of the estrogen phase. In males, there was no significant variation in exhaled NO and CO. Exhaled NO and CO levels vary during the ovarian cycle in women, and this fact should be taken into account during serial measurements of these markers in the female population.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carbon monoxide (CO) in tissues and cells can originate from inhalation of CO or endogenously. Endogenous production, carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) formation, and exhaled CO levels are influenced by physiological factors, including disease. It is suggested that endogenous CO production can be used as a biomarker for oxidative and inflammatory processes. Also, endogenous CO can contribute to increased body burden of CO, which may both disrupt normal CO signaling cascades and increase the risk of CO toxicity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Translational research on endogenous gaseous mediators--nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen sulfide--has exploded over the past decade. Drugs that modulate either the gaseous mediators themselves or their related intracellular signaling pathways are already in use in the clinics, and still more are being tested in preclinical models and clinical trials. Discussed here are the chemical and pharmacological properties that present challenges for the translation of these potentially toxic molecules.
Science translational medicine 11/2010; 2(59):59ps54. DOI:10.1126/scitranslmed.3000721 · 15.84 Impact Factor
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