Estimation and congener-specific characterization of polychlorinated naphthalene emissions from secondary nonferrous metallurgical facilities in China.

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 5.48). 03/2010; 44(7):2441-6. DOI: 10.1021/es9033342
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Secondary nonferrous production is addressed as one of the potential sources of the unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs) due to the impurity of raw material. Although there are inventories of dioxin emissions from secondary nonferrous metallurgical facilities, release inventories of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are scarce. This study selected typical secondary copper, aluminum, zinc, and lead plants to investigate the emissions of PCNs in secondary nonferrous production in China. The toxic equivalency (TEQ) emission factor for PCNs released to the environment is highest for secondary copper production, at 428.4 ng TEQ t(-1), followed by secondary aluminum, zinc, and lead production, at 142.8, 125.7, and 20.1 ng TEQ t(-1), respectively. PCNs released in secondary copper, aluminum, lead, and zinc production in China are estimated to be 0.86, 0.39, 0.009, and 0.01 g TEQ a(-1), respectively. Analysis of stack gas emission from secondary nonferrous production revealed that less-chlorinated PCNs are the dominant homologues, with mono- to tri-CNs making the most important contributions to the concentration. However, for fly ash, the more highly chlorinated PCNs such as octa-CN are the dominant homologues.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Identifying marker congeners of unintentionally produced polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) from industrial thermal sources might be useful for predicting total PCN (∑2-8PCN) emissions by the determination of only indicator congeners. In this study, potential indicator congeners were identified based on the PCN data in 122 stack gas samples from over 60 plants involved in more than ten industrial thermal sources reported in our previous case studies. Linear regression analyses identified that the concentrations of CN27/30, CN52/60, and CN66/67 correlated significantly with ∑2-8PCN (R(2)=0.77, 0.80, and 0.58, respectively; n=122, p<0.05), which might be good candidates for indicator congeners. Equations describing relationships between indicators and ∑2-8PCN were established. The linear regression analyses involving 122 samples showed that the relationships between the indicator congeners and ∑2-8PCN were not significantly affected by factors such as industry types, raw materials used, or operating conditions. Hierarchical cluster analysis and similarity calculations for the 122 stack gas samples were adopted to group those samples and evaluating their similarity and difference based on the PCN homolog distributions from different industrial thermal sources. Generally, the fractions of less chlorinated homologs comprised of di-, tri-, and tetra-homologs were much higher than that of more chlorinated homologs for up to 111 stack gas samples contained in group 1 and 2, which indicating the dominance of lower chlorinated homologs in stack gas from industrial thermal sources.
    Chemosphere 09/2014; 118C:194-200. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.08.041 · 3.50 Impact Factor
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Secondary aluminum production has been recognized as an important source of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs). Large variations in PCN emissions as the smelting process proceeds have not been determined. In this study, solid and gaseous discharges, including fly ash, slag, and stack gas samples collected from four secondary smelting plants during different smelting stages were analyzed for PCNs. The average emission factor of ∑1-8PCNs to air was calculated to be 17.4mgt(-1), with a range of 4.3-29.5mgt(-1). The average emission factors of ∑1-8PCNs from fly ash and slag were 55.5ngt(-1) and 0.13ngt(-1), respectively. The derived emission factors may enable a more accurate estimation of annual emissions and a more comprehensive knowledge of the distribution of PCNs emitted from secondary aluminum production. The emission levels and characteristics of PCNs during different smelting stages were compared. Possible factors, including the organic impurities from aluminum scrap, fuel, and chloride additives, which could contribute to variations in PCN emissions and characteristics were discussed. These results may provide useful information for developing better control strategies for reducing PCN emissions in secondary aluminum production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Hazardous Materials 01/2015; 286C:545-552. DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.01.009 · 4.33 Impact Factor