Estimation and congener-specific characterization of polychlorinated naphthalene emissions from secondary nonferrous metallurgical facilities in China.
ABSTRACT Secondary nonferrous production is addressed as one of the potential sources of the unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs) due to the impurity of raw material. Although there are inventories of dioxin emissions from secondary nonferrous metallurgical facilities, release inventories of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are scarce. This study selected typical secondary copper, aluminum, zinc, and lead plants to investigate the emissions of PCNs in secondary nonferrous production in China. The toxic equivalency (TEQ) emission factor for PCNs released to the environment is highest for secondary copper production, at 428.4 ng TEQ t(-1), followed by secondary aluminum, zinc, and lead production, at 142.8, 125.7, and 20.1 ng TEQ t(-1), respectively. PCNs released in secondary copper, aluminum, lead, and zinc production in China are estimated to be 0.86, 0.39, 0.009, and 0.01 g TEQ a(-1), respectively. Analysis of stack gas emission from secondary nonferrous production revealed that less-chlorinated PCNs are the dominant homologues, with mono- to tri-CNs making the most important contributions to the concentration. However, for fly ash, the more highly chlorinated PCNs such as octa-CN are the dominant homologues.
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ABSTRACT: PCN congeners were analyzed in marine and riverine sediments of the Laizhou Bay area, North China. Concentrations of PCNs ranged from 0.12 to 5.1 ng g(-)(1) dry weight (dw) with a mean value of 1.1 ng g(-)(1) dw. The levels of PCNs varied largely, with industrial group approximately ten folds higher than those of the rural in riverine sediment. A strong impact by direct discharge from local factories was suggested. Similar compositional profiles were found within groups. High resemblance of compositional profiles between industrial samples and Halowax 1014 was observed. It was indicated that PCNs in riverine sediments were mainly from release of industrial usage, with additional contributions from industrial thermal process at certain sites. In marine sediments, it was suggested that PCNs along the coast of Laizhou Bay were mainly controlled by riverine input. While in the central bay, PCN distributions were possibly impacted by combined multiple factors.Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex: 1987) 08/2011; 159(12):3515-21. · 3.43 Impact Factor
- Biophysical Journal 01/2011; 100(3). · 3.67 Impact Factor
- Clinical Neurophysiology - CLIN NEUROPHYSIOL. 01/2010; 121.