Estimation and Congener-Specific Characterization of Polychlorinated Naphthalene Emissions from Secondary Nonferrous Metallurgical Facilities in China

State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology, Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 03/2010; 44(7):2441-6. DOI: 10.1021/es9033342
Source: PubMed


Secondary nonferrous production is addressed as one of the potential sources of the unintentionally produced persistent organic pollutants (UP-POPs) due to the impurity of raw material. Although there are inventories of dioxin emissions from secondary nonferrous metallurgical facilities, release inventories of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) are scarce. This study selected typical secondary copper, aluminum, zinc, and lead plants to investigate the emissions of PCNs in secondary nonferrous production in China. The toxic equivalency (TEQ) emission factor for PCNs released to the environment is highest for secondary copper production, at 428.4 ng TEQ t(-1), followed by secondary aluminum, zinc, and lead production, at 142.8, 125.7, and 20.1 ng TEQ t(-1), respectively. PCNs released in secondary copper, aluminum, lead, and zinc production in China are estimated to be 0.86, 0.39, 0.009, and 0.01 g TEQ a(-1), respectively. Analysis of stack gas emission from secondary nonferrous production revealed that less-chlorinated PCNs are the dominant homologues, with mono- to tri-CNs making the most important contributions to the concentration. However, for fly ash, the more highly chlorinated PCNs such as octa-CN are the dominant homologues.

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Available from: Guorui Liu, May 12, 2015
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    • "In our samples, the hexa-CNs (CN-63, CN-64/68, CN-66/67, CN-69, CN-70, and CN-71/72) and hepta-CN (CN-73) were the main contributors to the PCN TEQs, contributing 10–57% (mean 41%) of the total PCN TEQ. Similar contributions have been found for PCN emissions from coking and secondary nonferrous metallurgical plants (Ba et al., 2010; Liu et al., 2010), in which CN-1, CN-2, CN-66/67, and CN-73 were the main contributors to the total PCN TEQs. There are some coking and secondary nonferrous metallurgical plants in the study area. "
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    ABSTRACT: The concentrations and patterns of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were determined in surface sediment samples from Wuxi, Suzhou, and Nantong, in the Yangtze River Delta (East China), which has become urbanized rapidly. The total PCN (tri- to octachlorinated naphthalenes) concentrations in the samples from Wuxi, Suzhou, and Nantong were 0.89-40, 2.8-4600, and 0.60-34ng/gdry weight, respectively. Unexpectedly high PCN concentrations were found in four of the sediment samples. The PCN concentrations were much higher in the samples from the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal than in the samples from the Yangtze River. The toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentrations (determined from the concentrations of the "dioxin-like" PCNs) ranged from 1.45×10(-7) to 2.16ngTEQ/g, and the congeners CN-66/67 and CN-73 were the predominant contributors to the TEQs. Independent samples t-tests were performed, and no significant differences were found between the PCN concentrations in the samples from the metropolitan area and the development zone when the four development-zone samples that contained very high PCN concentrations were excluded. The PCN profiles were dominated by the hexa- to octachlorinated naphthalene homologs. The CN-66/67 to CN-71/72 and CN-66 to CN-67 concentration ratios were used to identify specific PCN sources. Emissions from chemical and other industrial plants were found to have strongly influenced the PCN concentrations in sediment in the study area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Chemosphere 07/2015; 138:668-674. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.07.045 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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    • "2.2. Sample extraction, cleanup, and instrumental analysis PCDD/Fs in the stack gas and particulate samples were analyzed by isotope dilution HRGC/HRMS [27] [28] [29]. Briefly, the samples were spiked with known amounts of 13 C 12 -PCDD/F internal standards (Wellington Laboratories, Guelph, Canada). "
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    ABSTRACT: A pilot study was performed to evaluate formation, distribution and emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from cement kilns that co-process fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). Stack gas and particulate samples from multiple stages in the process were collected and analyzed for PCDD/Fs. Stack emissions of PCDD/Fs were below the European Union limit for cement kilns (0.1ngTEQm(-3)). PCDD/F concentrations in particulates from the cyclone preheater outlet, suspension preheater boiler, humidifier tower, and back-end bag filter were much higher than in other samples, which suggests that these areas are the major sites of PCDD/F formation. Comparison of PCDD/F homolog and congener profiles from different stages suggested that tetra- and penta-chlorinated furans were mainly formed during cement kiln co-processing of MSWI fly ash. Three lower chlorinated furan congeners, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran, 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran, were identified as dominant contributors to the toxic equivalents (TEQ) of the PCDD/Fs. The concentration of PCDD/Fs in particulates was correlated with chloride content, which is consistent with its positive effect on PCDD/F formation. This could be mitigated by pretreating the feedstock to remove chloride and metals. Mass balance indicated that cement kilns eliminated about 94% of the PCDD/F TEQ input from the feedstock. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Journal of hazardous materials 07/2015; 299:471-478. DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2015.07.052 · 4.53 Impact Factor
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    • "Studies conducted to investigate PCN emissions and characteristics at different smelting stages could; therefore, facilitate understanding of the formation mechanisms of PCNs. PCNs can bind to particles and also partition into the gas phase because of their semi-volatility [9] [14] [15]. However, the field data from most previous investigations focusing on gaseous emissions are unavailable for assessing the integrated emission of PCNs in all discharges. "
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