ABSTRACT 国立情報学研究所で電子化 A longitudinal study of a case of aphasia acquired in childhood was reported. The patient was a 27-year-old right-handed man who had suffered a traumatic brain injury caused by a serious traumatic fall at 11 years of age. Surgery was performed to remove an epidural hematoma immediately. He remained in a coma for four months following the accident. MRI revealed extensive lesions extending across the parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes, basal ganglia and thalamus in the left hemisphere. The patient was mute for six months, after which he began to speak some words. However, he could pronounce only vowels and the consonants / m / and / n / due to dysarthria and apraxia of speech. Although auditory comprehension of single words and simple sentences was fairly intact, he experienced difficulty in comprehending complex sentences precisely. He also showed severe deficits in reading and writing of both Japanese kana and kanji. His articulative disorders, except for slow speech, disappeared within two years following the traumatic brain injury. He received speech therapy for 15 years following the injury, and comprehensive and expressive language abilities showed good recovery. However, word-finding or syntactic processing deficits were sometimes apparent. He also demonstrated marked improvement in scores on the Standard Language Test for Aphasia. However, deficiencies in grammar, writing and reading comprehension remained. The long-term recovery of the patient suggests plasticity of cerebral functions during childhood. However, the age of injury, 11 years of age, and the extensiveness of the cerebral lesions suffered are considered to be responsible for the persistent language disorders.