Butyrate Greatly Enhances Derivation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Promoting Epigenetic Remodeling and the Expression of Pluripotency-Associated Genes

Stem Cell Program, Institute for Cell Engineering, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.
Stem Cells (Impact Factor: 6.52). 04/2010; 28(4):713-20. DOI: 10.1002/stem.402
Source: PubMed


We report here that butyrate, a naturally occurring fatty acid commonly used as a nutritional supplement and differentiation agent, greatly enhances the efficiency of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell derivation from human adult or fetal fibroblasts. After transient butyrate treatment, the iPS cell derivation efficiency is enhanced by 15- to 51-fold using either retroviral or piggyBac transposon vectors expressing 4 to 5 reprogramming genes. Butyrate stimulation is more remarkable (>100- to 200-fold) on reprogramming in the absence of either KLF4 or MYC transgene. Butyrate treatment did not negatively affect properties of iPS cell lines established by either 3 or 4 retroviral vectors or a single piggyBac DNA transposon vector. These characterized iPS cell lines, including those derived from an adult patient with sickle cell disease by either the piggyBac or retroviral vectors, show normal karyotypes and pluripotency. To gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of butyrate stimulation, we conducted genome-wide gene expression and promoter DNA methylation microarrays and other epigenetic analyses on established iPS cells and cells from intermediate stages of the reprogramming process. By days 6 to 12 during reprogramming, butyrate treatment enhanced histone H3 acetylation, promoter DNA demethylation, and the expression of endogenous pluripotency-associated genes, including DPPA2, whose overexpression partially substitutes for butyrate stimulation. Thus, butyrate as a cell permeable small molecule provides a simple tool to further investigate molecular mechanisms of cellular reprogramming. Moreover, butyrate stimulation provides an efficient method for reprogramming various human adult somatic cells, including cells from patients that are more refractory to reprogramming.


Available from: Robert Brodsky
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    • "Combination of SB and PD, or SB, PD, and sodium butyrate (NAB) can convert partially reprogrammed colonies to a fully reprogrammed state, thereby improving the efficiency of reprogramming [18], [19]. Moreover, epigenetic modifier NAB is more reliable and efficient than VPA in generation of human iPS cells and contributes to more efficient reprogramming [20], [21]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells from somatic cells have great potential for regenerative medicine. The efficiency in generation of iPS cells has been significantly improved in recent years. However, the generation of high-quality iPS cells remains of high interest. Consistently, we demonstrate that knockout serum replacement (KSR)-based medium accelerates iPS cell induction and improves the quality of iPS cells, as confirmed by generation of chimeras and all iPS cell-derived offspring with germline transmission competency. Both alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity assay and expression of Nanog have been used to evaluate the efficiency of iPS cell induction and formation of ES/iPS cell colonies; however, appropriate expression of Nanog frequently indicates the quality of ES/iPS cells. Interestingly, whereas foetal bovine serum (FBS)-based media increase iPS cell colony formation, as revealed by AP activity, KSR-based media increase the frequency of iPS cell colony formation with Nanog expression. Furthermore, inhibition of MAPK/ERK by a specific inhibitor, PD0325901, in KSR- but not in FBS-based media significantly increases Nanog-GFP+ iPS cells. In contrast, addition of bFGF in KSR-based media decreases proportion of Nanog-GFP+ iPS cells. Remarkably, PD can rescue Nanog-GFP+ deficiency caused by bFGF. These data suggest that MAPK/ERK pathway influences high quality mouse iPS cells and that KSR- and PD-based media could enrich homogeneous authentic pluripotent stem cells.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e105309. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0105309 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "After retroviral transduction, treated IMR90 cells were re-plated on MEF feeders under the human ESC culture conditions. The derived human iPSC lines were characterized by standard methods [34]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Induction of pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) by defined transcription factors is the recognized canonical means for somatic reprogramming, however, it remains incompletely understood how individual transcription factors affect cell fate decisions during the reprogramming process. Here, we report induction of fibroblast reprogramming by various transcriptional factors is mediated by a miR19a/b-PTEN axis. cMyc, one of the four Yamanaka factors known to stimulate both somatic cell reprogramming and tumorigenesis, induced the expression of multiple mircoRNAs, miR-17∼92 cluster in particular, in the early stage of reprogramming of human fibroblasts. Importantly, miR-17∼92 cluster could greatly enhance human fibroblast reprogramming induced by either the four Yamanaka factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and cMyc, or 4F) or the first three transcriptional factors (Oct4, Sox2, and Klf4, or 3F). Among members of this microRNA cluster, miR-19a/b exhibited the most potent effect on stimulating fibroblst reprogramming to iPSCs. Additional studies revealed that miR-19a/b enhanced iPSC induction efficiency by targeted inhibition of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), a renowned tumor suppressor whose loss-of-function mutations were found in multiple human malignancies. Our results thus demonstrate an important role of miR-19a/b-PTEN axis in the reprogramming of human fibroblasts, illustrating that the somatic reprogramming process and its underlying regulation pathways are intertwined with oncogenic signaling in human malignancies.
    PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e95213. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0095213 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "The reprogramming efficiency is improved by lowering the barrier of histone modifications. Agents that have been reported to increase iPSC generation include BIX-01294, which is an inhibitor of G9a histone H3K9 methyltransferase,60) and valproic acid (VPA), trichostatin A (TSA), suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and sodium butyrate (NaB), which all are inhibitors of histone deacetylase.61,62) NaB promotes the reprogramming only in the presence of exogenously expressed c-Myc at the early stage of reprogramming.62,63) "
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    ABSTRACT: The "reversion of cell fate from differentiated states back into totipotent or pluripotent states" has been an interest of many scientists for a long time. With the help of knowledge accumulated by those scientists, we succeeded in converting somatic cells to a pluripotent cell lineage by the forced expression of defined factors. These established induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have similar features to embryonic stem (ES) cells, including pluripotency and immortality. The iPS cell technology provides unprecedented opportunities for regenerative medicine and drug discovery.
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