Clostridium difficile toxin B differentially affects GPCR-stimulated Ca2+ responses in macrophages: Independent roles for Rho and PLA 2
ABSTRACT Clostridium difficile toxins cause acute colitis by disrupting the enterocyte barrier and promoting inflammation. ToxB from C. difficile inactivates Rho family GTPases and causes release of cytokines and eicosanoids by macrophages. We studied the effects of ToxB on GPCR signaling in murine RAW264.7 macrophages and found that ToxB elevated Ca(2+) responses to Galphai-linked receptors, including the C5aR, but reduced responses to Galphaq-linked receptors, including the UDP receptors. Other Rho inhibitors also reduced UDP Ca(2+) responses, but they did not affect C5a responses, suggesting that ToxB inhibited UDP responses by inhibiting Rho but enhanced C5a responses by other mechanisms. By using PLCbeta isoform-deficient BMDM, we found that ToxB inhibited Ca(2+) signaling through PLCbeta4 but enhanced signaling through PLCbeta3. Effects of ToxB on GPCR Ca(2+) responses correlated with GPCR use of PLCbeta3 versus PLCbeta4. ToxB inhibited UDP Ca(2+) signaling without reducing InsP3 production or the sensitivity of cellular Ca(2+) stores to exogenous InsP3, suggesting that ToxB impairs UDP signaling at the level of InsP3/Ca(2+)coupling. In contrast, ToxB elevated InsP3 production by C5a, and the enhancement of Ca(2+) signaling by C5a was prevented by inhibition of PLA(2) or 5-LOX but not COX, implicating LTs but not prostanoids in the mechanism. In sum, ToxB has opposing, independently regulated effects on Ca(2+) signaling by different GPCR-linked PLCbeta isoforms in macrophages.
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ABSTRACT: G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) initiate Ras-dependent activation of the Erk 1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade by stimulating recruitment of Ras guanine nucleotide exchange factors to the plasma membrane. Both integrin-based focal adhesion complexes and receptor tyrosine kinases have been proposed as scaffolds upon which the GPCR-induced Ras activation complex may assemble. Using specific inhibitors of focal adhesion complex assembly and receptor tyrosine kinase activation, we have determined the relative contribution of each to activation of the Erk 1/2 cascade following stimulation of endogenous GPCRs in three different cell types. The tetrapeptide RGDS, which inhibits integrin dimerization, and cytochalasin D, which depolymerizes the actin cytoskeleton, disrupt the assembly of focal adhesions. In PC12 rat pheochromocytoma cells, both agents block lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)- and bradykinin-stimulated Erk 1/2 phosphorylation, suggesting that intact focal adhesion complexes are required for GPCR-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase activation in these cells. In Rat 1 fibroblasts, Erk 1/2 activation via LPA and thrombin receptors is completely insensitive to both agents. Conversely, the epidermal growth factor receptor-specific tyrphostin AG1478 inhibits GPCR-mediated Erk 1/2 activation in Rat 1 cells but has no effect in PC12 cells. In HEK-293 human embryonic kidney cells, LPA and thrombin receptor-mediated Erk 1/2 activation is partially sensitive to both the RGDS peptide and tyrphostin AG1478, suggesting that both focal adhesion and receptor tyrosine kinase scaffolds are employed in these cells. The dependence of GPCR-mediated Erk 1/2 activation on intact focal adhesions correlates with expression of the calcium-regulated focal adhesion kinase, Pyk2. In all three cell types, GPCR-stimulated Erk 1/2 activation is significantly inhibited by the Src kinase inhibitors, herbimycin A and 4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo-D-3,4-pyrimidine (PP1), suggesting that Src family nonreceptor tyrosine kinases represent a point of convergence for signals originating from either scaffold.Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/1999; 274(20):13978-84. DOI:10.1074/jbc.274.20.13978 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Parathyroid hormone (PTH) binds its cognate G-protein-coupled receptor (PTH1R) and signals through both adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C (PLC). C-terminal determinants of the PTH1R interact with the Na+/H+ exchanger regulatory factor 1 (NHERF-1) by binding the first of two PDZ (psd95, discs-large, ZO-1) domains. Compared with wild-type opossum kidney (OK) cells, OKH cells, a sub-clone, do not display PTH-mediated increases of [Ca2+]i and express NHERF-1 at markedly lower levels. Stable expression of NHERF-1 in the OKH parent (OKH-N1) restores the PTH-mediated increase of [Ca2+]i that arises from an influx of extracellular calcium and is both PLC-dependent and pertussis toxin-sensitive. From a morphological perspective, NHERF-1 and the PTH1R co-localize to apical patches of OKH-N1 cells, an expression pattern that is absent in OKH cells and depends on a direct NHERF-1-PTH1R interaction in OKH-N1 cells. Actin and PLCbeta1 and -beta3 co-localize with NHERF-1 and the PTH1R in OKH-N1 cell apical patches. Actin is also an integral component of the NHERF-1-assembled complex because cytochalasin D disrupts apical localization of both NHERF-1 and the PTH1R and inhibits the PTH-mediated increase of [Ca2+]i. Expression of the first PDZ domain of NHERF-1 acts as a dominant-negative interactor by blocking apical localization of the PTH1R and inhibiting PTH-elicited increases of [Ca2+]i. Thus, NHERF-1 assembles a signaling complex in the apical domains of OK cells that contains the PTH1R, PLCbeta, and the actin cytoskeleton. Disruption of this complex blocks the PTH mediated increases of intracellular calcium.Journal of Biological Chemistry 06/2004; 279(22):23550-8. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M313229200 · 4.57 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We have investigated the mechanism of Ca(2+) entry into fura-2-loaded human platelets by preventing the prenylation of proteins such as small GTP-binding proteins. The farnesylcysteine analogues farnesylthioacetic acid (FTA) and N-acetyl-S-geranylgeranyl-L-cysteine (AGGC), which are inhibitors of the methylation of prenylated and geranylgeranylated proteins respectively, significantly decreased thrombin-evoked increases in intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in the presence, but not in the absence, of external Ca(2+), suggesting a relatively selective inhibition of Ca(2+) entry over internal release. Both these compounds and N-acetyl-S-farnesyl-L-cysteine, which had similar effects to those of FTA, also decreased Ca(2+) entry evoked by the depletion of intracellular Ca(2+) stores with thapsigargin. The inactive control N-acetyl-S-geranyl-L-cysteine was without effect. Patulin, an inhibitor of prenylation that is inert with respect to methyltransferases, also decreased store-regulated Ca(2+) entry. Cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, significantly decreased store-regulated Ca(2+) entry in a time-dependent manner. Both cytochalasin D and the farnesylcysteine analogues FTA and AGGC inhibited actin polymerization; however, when evoking the same extent of decrease in actin filament formation, FTA and AGGC showed greater inhibitory effects on Ca(2+) entry, indicating a cytoskeleton-independent component in the regulation of Ca(2+) entry by small GTP-binding-protein. These findings suggest that prenylated proteins such as small GTP-binding proteins are involved in store-regulated Ca(2+) entry through actin cytoskeleton-dependent and cytoskeleton-independent mechanisms in human platelets.Biochemical Journal 05/2000; 347 Pt 1(1):183-92. DOI:10.1042/0264-6021:3470183 · 4.40 Impact Factor