A slow, tight binding inhibitor of InhA, the enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Rudolf Virchow Center for Experimental Biomedicine, Institute for Structural Biology, University of Würzburg, 97080 Würzburg, Germany.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.6). 03/2010; 285(19):14330-7. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M109.090373
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT InhA, the enoyl-ACP reductase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an attractive target for the development of novel drugs against tuberculosis, a disease that kills more than two million people each year. InhA is the target of the current first line drug isoniazid for the treatment of tuberculosis infections. Compounds that directly target InhA and do not require activation by the mycobacterial catalase-peroxidase KatG are promising candidates for treating infections caused by isoniazid-resistant strains. Previously we reported the synthesis of several diphenyl ethers with nanomolar affinity for InhA. However, these compounds are rapid reversible inhibitors of the enzyme, and based on the knowledge that long drug target residence times are an important factor for in vivo drug activity, we set out to generate a slow onset inhibitor of InhA using structure-based drug design. 2-(o-Tolyloxy)-5-hexylphenol (PT70) is a slow, tight binding inhibitor of InhA with a K(1) value of 22 pm. PT70 binds preferentially to the InhA x NAD(+) complex and has a residence time of 24 min on the target, which is 14,000 times longer than that of the rapid reversible inhibitor from which it is derived. The 1.8 A crystal structure of the ternary complex between InhA, NAD(+), and PT70 reveals the molecular details of enzyme-inhibitor recognition and supports the hypothesis that slow onset inhibition is coupled to ordering of an active site loop, which leads to the closure of the substrate-binding pocket.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Isoniazid (INH) is usually administered to treat latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infections, and is used in combination therapy to treat active tuberculosis disease (TB). Unfortunately, resistance to this drug is hampering its clinical effectiveness. INH is a prodrug that must be activated by Mtb catalase peroxidase (KatG) before it can inhibit InhA (Mtb enoyl-acyl-carrier-protein reductase). Isoniazid-resistant cases of TB found in clinical settings usually involve mutations in or deletion of katG, which abrogate INH activation. Compounds that inhibit InhA without requiring prior activation by KatG would not be affected by this resistance mechanism and hence would display continued potency against these drug-resistant isolates of Mtb. Virtual screening experiments versus InhA in the GO Fight Against Malaria project (GO FAM) were designed to discover new scaffolds that display base stacking interactions with the NAD cofactor. GO FAM experiments included targets from other pathogens, including Mtb, when they had structural similarity to a malaria target. Eight of the sixteen soluble compounds identified by docking against InhA plus visual inspection were modest inhibitors and did not require prior activation by KatG. The best two inhibitors discovered are both fragment-sized compounds and displayed Ki values of 54 and 59 µM, respectively. Importantly, the novel inhibitors discovered have low structural similarity to known InhA inhibitors and, thus, help expand the number of chemotypes on which future medicinal chemistry efforts can be focused. These new fragment hits could eventually help advance the fight against INH-resistant Mtb strains, which pose a significant global health threat.
    Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling 01/2015; 55(3). DOI:10.1021/ci500672v · 4.07 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: InhA is an enoyl-ACP reductase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis implicated in the biosynthesis of mycolic acids, essential constituents of the mycobacterial cell wall. To date, this enzyme is considered as a promising target for the discovery of novel antitubercular drugs. In this work, we describe the first crystal structure of the apo form of the wild-type InhA at 1.80 Å resolution as well as the crystal structure of InhA in complex with the synthetic metabolite of the antitubercular drug isoniazid refined to 1.40 Å. This metabolite, synthesized in the absence of InhA, is able to displace and replace the cofactor NADH in the enzyme active site. This work provides a unique opportunity to enlighten the structural adaptation of apo-InhA to the binding of the NADH cofactor or of the isoniazid adduct. In addition, a differential scanning fluorimetry study of InhA, in the apo-form as well as in the presence of NAD(+), NADH and INH-NADH was performed showing that binding of the INH-NADH adduct had a strong stabilizing effet. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Journal of Structural Biology 04/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jsb.2015.04.008 · 3.37 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The classical methods for quantifying drug-target residence time (tR) use loss or regain of enzyme activity in progress curve kinetic assays. However, such methods become imprecise at very long residence times, mitigating the use of alternative strategies. Using the NAD(P)H-dependent FabI enoyl-acyl carrier protein (enoyl-ACP) reductase as a model system, we developed a Penefsky column-based method for direct measurement of tR, where the off-rate of the drug was determined with radiolabeled [adenylate-(32)P]NAD(P(+)) cofactor. In total, 23 FabI inhibitors were analyzed, and a mathematical model was used to estimate limits to the tR values of each inhibitor based on percentage drug-target complex recovery following gel filtration. In general, this method showed good agreement with the classical steady-state kinetic methods for compounds with tR values of 10 to 100min. In addition, we were able to identify seven long tR inhibitors (100-1500min) and to accurately determine their tR values. The method was then used to measure tR as a function of temperature, an analysis not previously possible using the standard kinetic approach due to decreased NAD(P)H stability at elevated temperatures. In general, a 4-fold difference in tR was observed when the temperature was increased from 25 to 37°C. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Analytical Biochemistry 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ab.2014.12.022 · 2.31 Impact Factor