Infant Nutritional Factors and Functional Constipation in Childhood: The Generation R Study
ABSTRACT Food allergy and celiac disease may lead to childhood constipation. Early introduction of food allergens and gluten in the first year of life has been suggested to have a function in these food intolerances, but it is unclear whether this also holds true for development of childhood constipation. The aim of this study was to assess the association between the timing of introduction of food allergens and gluten early in life and functional constipation in childhood.
This study was embedded in the Generation R study, a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood. Functional constipation at 24 months of age was defined in 4,651 children according to the Rome II criteria of defecation frequency <3 times a week or the presence of mainly hard feces for at least 2 weeks.
At the age of 24 months, 12% of the children had functional constipation. Children with functional constipation got introduced to gluten more often before or at the age of 6 months than children without functional constipation (37% and 27%, respectively). After adjustment for birth weight, gestational age, gender, ethnicity, maternal education, and family history of atopy and chronic intestinal disorders, functional constipation was significantly associated with early gluten introduction (odds ratio (OR): 1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.65). No association was found between timing of introduction of cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts, and tree nuts with functional constipation. A history of cow's milk allergy in the first year of life was significantly associated with functional constipation in childhood (OR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.04-2.36).
These results suggest that early gluten introduction in the first year of life provide a trigger for functional constipation in a subset of children. In case of functional constipation, there also might be a role for cow's milk allergy initiated in the first year of life.
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ABSTRACT: Background: Celiac disease (CD) has emerged as a common, but largely undiagnosed health problem. Numerous studies examined the influence of infant nutrition on the development of diagnosed CD. However, results are still inconsistent. In addition, the effect of infant feeding practices on the development of potential forms of CD might be different. Objective: The objective was to examine whether the timing of gluten introduction and breastfeeding duration are associated with CD autoimmunity (CDA) in children at the age of 6 y. Design: This study was embedded in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study. Participants included 1679 Dutch children who were positive for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DQ2/DQ8. Data on the timing of gluten introduction (<6 mo compared with >= 6 mo) and duration of breastfeeding (<6 mo compared with >= 6 mo) were obtained by questionnaire. Serum samples were analyzed for anti-tissue transglutaminase (anti-tTG) concentrations at age 6 y. Anti-tTG concentrations were categorized into negative (<7 U/mL) and positive (>= 7 U/mL) values. Positive anti-tTG concentrations were further categorized based on >= 10 times the upper limit of normal (ULN) values of the test kit (>= 7-70 and >= 70 U/mL). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Results: Positive anti-tTG concentrations were found in 43 children, 26 of whom had concentrations >= 10 times the ULN (>= 70 IU/mL). The introduction of gluten from the age of 6 mo onward and breastfeeding for >= 6 mo were not significantly associated with positive anti-tTG concentrations. In addition, the timing of gluten introduction and duration of breastfeeding were not significantly associated with positive anti-tTG concentrations below or above 10 times the ULN. Conclusions: Delayed introduction of gluten beyond the age of 6 mo does not increase the risk of CDA. In addition, breastfeeding for >= 6 mo does not decrease the risk of CDA in children at 6 y of age.American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 10/2014; 100(4):1095-101. DOI:10.3945/ajcn.114.090316 · 6.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia of the gastrointestinal tract is characterized by the presence of multiple small nodules, normally between between 2 and 10 mm in diameter, distributed along the small intestine (more often), stomach, large intestine, or rectum. The pathogenesis is largely unknown. It can occur in all age groups, but primarily in children and can affect adults with or without immunodeficiency. Some patients have an associated disease, namely, common variable immunodeficiency, selective IgA deficiency, Giardia infection, or, more rarely, human immunodeficiency virus infection, celiac disease, or Helicobacter pylori infection. Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia generally presents as an asymptomatic disease, but it may cause gastrointestinal symptoms like abdominal pain, chronic diarrhea, bleeding or intestinal obstruction. A diagnosis is made at endoscopy or contrast barium studies and should be confirmed by histology. Its histological characteristics include markedly hyperplasic, mitotically active germinal centers and well-defined lymphocyte mantles found in the lamina propria and/or in the superficial submucosa, distributed in a diffuse or focal form. Treatment is directed towards associated conditions because the disorder itself generally requires no intervention. Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia is a risk factor for both intestinal and, very rarely, extraintestinal lymphoma. Some authors recommend surveillance, however, the duration and intervals are undefined.11/2014; 6(11):534-40. DOI:10.4253/wjge.v6.i11.534
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ABSTRACT: Objective: This multicenter prospective study aimed to establish possible risk factors for functional constipation (FC) in the first year of life. Methods: At the infant's age of 3, 6, and 12 months, parents of all included infants completed 2 questionnaires: one about the presence of FC and the other screened the possible risk factors for FC. Parents of 465 infants completed the questionnaires at 3 and 6 months and of 402 infants at 12 months of life. Results: According to the Rome III criteria, FC was found in 11.6% of the infants at 3 months, in 13.7% at 6 months, and in 10.7% at 12 months after birth. Family history of atopy was present in 38.8% and 45.3% of infants with constipation at 3 and 6 months (P = 0.04 and P = 0.02, respectively), but no significant association was found at 12 months (P = 0.80). Breast-feeding was significantly related to a normal evacuation pattern at 3 months (P = 0.05), but not at 6 and 12 months (P = 0.12 and P = 0.9, respectively). Acetaminophen and female sex appeared to be risk factors for FC at 12 months. After the adjustment for all analyzed variables, FC in infants was significantly associated with the use of acetaminophen (odds ratio 6.98, 95% confidence interval 0.82–13.50). Conclusions: Our results confirmed that breast-feeding is a protective factor for FC in the first 3 months of life and that the female sex is at risk to have FC. We found that the use of acetaminophen was associated with a higher incidence of FC in the first year of life.Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 03/2014; 58(3):307-312. DOI:10.1097/MPG.0000000000000209 · 2.87 Impact Factor