Preclinical Evaluation of Radiation and Perifosine in a Genetically and Histologically Accurate Model of Brainstem Glioma
ABSTRACT Brainstem gliomas (BSG) are a rare group of central nervous system tumors that arise mostly in children and usually portend a particularly poor prognosis. We report the development of a genetically engineered mouse model of BSG using the RCAS/tv-a system and its implementation in preclinical trials. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) receptor alpha is overexpressed in 67% of pediatric BSGs. Based on this observation, we induced low-grade BSGs by overexpressing PDGF-B in the posterior fossa of neonatal nestin tv-a mice. To generate high-grade BSGs, we overexpressed PDGF-B in combination with Ink4a-ARF loss, given that this locus is commonly lost in high-grade pediatric BSGs. We show that the likely cells of origin for these mouse BSGs exist on the floor of the fourth ventricle and cerebral aqueduct. Irradiation of these high-grade BSGs shows that although single doses of 2, 6, and 10 Gy significantly increased the percent of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive nuclei, only 6 and 10 Gy significantly induce cell cycle arrest. Perifosine, an inhibitor of AKT signaling, significantly induced TUNEL-positive nuclei in this high-grade BSG model, but in combination with 10 Gy, it did not significantly increase the percent of TUNEL-positive nuclei relative to 10 Gy alone at 6, 24, and 72 hours. Survival analysis showed that a single dose of 10 Gy significantly prolonged survival by 27% (P = 0.0002) but perifosine did not (P = 0.92). Perifosine + 10 Gy did not result in a significantly increased survival relative to 10 Gy alone (P = 0.23). This PDGF-induced BSG model can serve as a preclinical tool for the testing of novel agents.
- SourceAvailable from: William Gillies McKennaBritish Journal of Cancer 07/2011; 105(5):628-639. DOI:10.1038/bjc.2011.240 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Neural stem and progenitor cells (NSCs) give rise to the cellular diversity of the CNS. There is evidence both for and against differences in these cells based on the region of the brain in which they reside. Primary brain tumors mimic many aspects of NSC behavior. Recent data suggest that some of the variability in glioma biology may be, in part, a reflection of regional differences in the NSCs from which they arise. In this issue of Genes & Development, Lee and colleagues (pp. 2317-2329) examine how NF1 regulates NSC proliferation and glial differentiation in the brainstem and cortex of the postnatal mouse brain.Genes & development 10/2010; 24(20):2233-8. DOI:10.1101/gad.1988010 · 12.64 Impact Factor
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