Article

Maternal Serum Interleukin-6, C-Reactive Protein, and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Concentrations as Risk Factors for Preterm Birth < 32 Weeks and Adverse Neonatal Outcomes

Drexel University, Filadelfia, Pennsylvania, United States
American Journal of Perinatology (Impact Factor: 1.6). 03/2010; 27(8):631-40. DOI: 10.1055/s-0030-1249366
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Elevated concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in fetal and neonatal compartments have been associated with an increased risk for preterm birth (PTB) and/or neonatal morbidity. The purpose of this study was to determine if the maternal serum concentration of IL-6, CRP, and MMP-9 in women at risk for PTB, who are not in labor and have intact membranes, are associated with an increased risk for PTB <32 weeks and/or neonatal morbidity. Maternal serum samples collected from 475 patients enrolled in a multicenter randomized controlled trial of single versus weekly corticosteroids for women at increased risk for preterm delivery were assayed. Serum was collected at randomization (24 to 32 weeks' gestation). Maternal serum concentrations of IL-6, CRP, and MMP-9 were subsequently determined using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the relationship between maternal serum concentrations of IL-6, CRP, and MMP-9 and PTB <32 weeks, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), chronic lung disease (CLD), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and any sepsis. Maternal serum concentrations of IL-6 and CRP, but not MMP-9, above the 90th percentile at the time of randomization were associated with PTB <32 weeks. In contrast, there was no significant relationship between RDS and NEC and the maternal serum concentration of IL-6, CRP, or MMP-9 (univariate analysis). The development of CLD was associated with a high (above 90th percentile) IL-6 and CRP in maternal serum, even after adjustment for gestational age (GA) at randomization and treatment group. However, when GA at delivery was added to the model, this finding was nonsignificant. Neonatal sepsis was more frequent in neonates born to mothers with a high maternal serum concentration of CRP (>90th percentile). However, there was no significant association after adjustment for GA at randomization and treatment group. Logistic regression analysis for each analyte indicated that high maternal serum concentrations of IL-6 and CRP, but not MMP-9, were associated with an increased risk of IVH (odds ratio [OR] 4.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.86 to 10.68; OR 4.07, 95% CI 1.63 to 9.50) after adjusting for GA at randomization and treatment group. Most babies (25/30) had grade I IVH. When GA at delivery was included, elevated IL-6 remained significantly associated with IVH (OR 2.77, 95% CI 1.02 to 7.09). An elevated maternal serum concentration of IL-6 and CRP are risk factors for PTB <32 weeks and subsequent development of neonatal IVH. An elevated maternal serum IL-6 appears to confer additional risk for IVH even after adjusting for GA at delivery.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Donald J Dudley, Jun 29, 2015
2 Followers
 · 
163 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To determine whether histologic chorioamnionitis is associated with changes in gene expression of TLR-1, -2, -4 and -6, and to describe the localization of these receptors in fetal membranes. A total of 135 amniochorion membranes with or without histologic chorioamnionitis from preterm or term deliveries were included. Fragments of membranes were submitted to total RNA extraction. RNA was reverse transcribed and the quantification of TLRs expression measured by real time PCR. All amniochorion membranes expressed TLR-1 and TLR-4, whereas 99.1% of membranes expressed TLR-2 and 77.4% expressed TLR-6. TLR-1 and TLR-2 expressions were significantly higher in membranes with histologic chorioamnionitis as compared to membranes without chorioamnionitis in preterm pregnancies (p=0.003 and p<0.001, respectively). Among the membranes of term pregnancies there were no differences in the expressions of such receptors regardless of inflammatory status. Regarding TLR-4 and TLR-6 expression, there was no difference among membranes with or without histologic chorioamnionitis, regardless gestational age at delivery. TLR-1, TLR-2, TLR-4 and TLR-6 expressions were observed in amniotic epithelial, chorionic and decidual cells. Amniochorion membranes express TLR-1, TLR-2, TLR-4 and TLR-6 and increased expression of TLR-1 and TLR-2 is related to the presence of histologic chorioamnionitis in preterm pregnancies. This study provides further evidence that amniochorion membranes act as a mechanical barrier to microorganisms and as components of the innate immune system.
    European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology 10/2013; 171(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ejogrb.2013.07.036 · 1.63 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity in neonatal intensive care units. Persistent inflammation, with an abnormal influx of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) followed by monocytes (MONOs), occurs early in the pathogenesis of BPD. Anti-inflammatory therapy with better efficacy and safety than dexamethasone (DEX) is needed. In the present study we determined cell-specific gene expression and cytokine release in response to glucocorticoids versus interleukin-10 (IL-10). Subsequently, we hypothesized that the insensitivity of MONOs to DEX was associated with a failure of the glucocorticoid receptor to translocate to the nucleus. PMNs and MONOs were isolated from umbilical cord blood at birth, and pretreated with PBS vehicle, IL-10 or glucocorticoids prior to endotoxin (LPS)-stimulation for 4 and 18h. Genome-wide gene expressions were determined by microarray and validated by RT-qPCR. Interleukin 8 release in cell culture supernatant was measured by ELISA. To examine the mechanism of monocyte insensitivity to glucocorticoids, nuclear translocation of the glucocorticoid receptor was determined by Western blots. MONOs had 6 times the number of genes changing expression with IL-10 compared to PMNs at 4h. DEX at the therapeutic level for neonates with BPD had no effect on gene expression in MONOs. The order of potency for inhibition of interleukin-8 release from MONOs was IL-10 >betamethasone >dexamethasone and hydrocortisone. Glucocorticoid potency in MONOs was directly related to glucocorticoid receptor translocation to nucleus. Gene expression profiling for IL-10 versus glucocorticoids indicates there may be major differences in therapeutic efficacy for BPD.
    American Journal of Translational Research 01/2013; 5(1):103-15. · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Preterm delivery (PTD) occurs before the 37th week of gestation. Iron deficiency anemia and inflammatory processes either related to infection or sterile inflammatory response represent risk factors for PTD. Bovine lactoferrin (bLf), an emerging important regulator of iron and inflammatory homeostasis, can represent a new therapeutic approach for PTD treatment. Here an open-label cohort and subcohort study is reported. The cohort was designed to assess the effect of bLf oral administration on iron and inflammatory homeostasis in anemic pregnant women. The subcohort including women of the cohort with PTD threat was additionally treated with bLf intravaginal administration. A significant improvement of hematological parameters was observed in the women's cohort together with a consistent decrease of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels. Combined administration of oral and intravaginal bLf to the women's subcohort with PTD threat decreased IL-6 in both serum and cervicovaginal fluids, cervicovaginal prostaglandin F(2α), and suppressed uterine contractility. BLf administration blocked further shortening of cervical length and the increase of fetal fibronectin thus prolonging the length of pregnancy. The deliveries occurred between the 37th and 38th week of gestation. These results provide strong evidence for a role of bLf in PTD treatment, thus extending the therapeutic potential of this multifunctional natural protein.
    Biochemistry and Cell Biology 01/2012; 90(3):468-75. DOI:10.1139/o11-060 · 2.35 Impact Factor