Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography/positive ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method for the quantification of perindopril and its main metabolite in human plasma.
ABSTRACT A validated method based on liquid chromatography/positive ion electrospray-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS) is described for the quantification of perindopril and its active metabolite, perindoprilat, in human plasma. The assay was based on 500-microL plasma samples, following solid-phase extraction using Oasis HLB cartridges. All analytes and the internal standard (trandolapril) were separated by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography using a SeQuant Zic-HILIC analytical column (150.0 x 2.1 mm i.d., particle size 3.5 microm, 200 A) with isocratic elution. The mobile phase consisted of 10% 5.0 mM ammonium acetate water solution in a binary mixture of acetonitrile/methanol (60:40, v/v) and pumped at a flow rate of 0.10 mL min(-1). Quantitation of the analytes was performed with selected ion monitoring (SIM) in positive ionization mode using electrospray ionization interface. The assay was found to be linear in the concentration range of 5.0-500.0 ng mL(-1) for perindopril and perindoprilat. Intermediate precision were found less than 3.5% over the tested concentration ranges. A run time of less than 6.0 min for each sample made it possible to analyze a large number of human plasma samples per day. The method is the first reported application of HILIC in the analysis of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and can be used to quantify perindopril and perindoprilat in human plasma covering a variety of pharmacokinetic or bioequivalence studies.
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ABSTRACT: Zabicipril (S 9650) is a new angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor whose hydrolysis in vivo produces the pharmacologically active metabolite zabiciprilat (S 10211). Two competitive enzyme immunoassays specific for either zabicipril or zabiciprilat have been developed using acetylcholinesterase (E.C. 22.214.171.124) as label. Antibodies were raised in rabbits after immunization with lysil derivatives of zabicipril or zabiciprilat coupled with bovine serum albumin. Assays were performed in 96-well microtiter plates coated with a monoclonal antibody raised against rabbit immunoglobulin G, thus ensuring rapid separation of free and bound fractions of the tracer. The analysis does not require any extraction step. In the case of the assay of zabiciprilat, interference generated by endogenous angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was eliminated by the addition of perindoprilat, another ACE inhibitor. Perindoprilat was not recognized by the antibodies (cross-reactivity < 0.01%) and did not affect assay efficiency. The specificity of the assays was checked by high-performance liquid chromatography of human plasma samples obtained after oral administration of 2 mg of zabicipril. No metabolites or endogenous substances were detected. The mean reproducibility was 15% for the assay of zabicipril and 19% for the assay of zabiciprilat. The quantification limits were 1.2 ng/ml for the zabicipril assay and 0.8 ng/ml for the zabiciprilat assay. These assays are therefore suitable for pharmacokinetic studies and drug monitoring in clinical studies.Therapeutic Drug Monitoring 11/1993; 15(5):448-54. · 2.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A new sensitive, simple, rapid and precise reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) and two spectrophotometric methods have been developed for resolving binary mixture of perindopril and indapamide in the pharmaceutical dosage forms. The first method is based on HPLC on a reversed-phase column using a mobile phase of phosphate buffer pH 2.4 and acetonitrile (7:3 v/v) was used. Linearity range for perindopril and indapamide was 5.0-70.0 and 8.0-35.0 microg ml(-1). In the second method, the first derivative spectrophotometry with a zero-crossing technique of measurement is used for the simultaneous quantitative determination of perindopril and indapamide in binary mixtures without previous separation step. Linear calibration graphs of first derivative values at 225.7 and 255.4 nm for perindopril and indapamide, respectively. The third method is based on ratio derivative spectrophotometry, the amplitudes in the first derivative of the ratio spectra at 226.5 and at 255.3 nm were selected to determine perindopril and indapamide in the binary mixture. All the proposed methods showed good linearity, precision and reproducibility. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the pharmaceutical dosage forms containing the above-mentioned drug combination without any interference by the excipients.Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis 09/2001; 26(1):43-52. · 2.95 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality by improving coronary perfusion, reducing ventricular hypertrophy and remodeling, and preventing progression of coronary atherosclerosis. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of ACEi are not fully understood. We studied the in vivo effects of ACE inhibition with perindopril on cellular expression of ACE, AT(1) receptors and 2 nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms, endothelial (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS), in human blood vessels using quantitative in vitro autoradiography and immunocytochemistry. Seven patients with ischemic heart disease were treated with perindopril (4 mg/d) for up to 5 weeks before elective coronary bypass surgery, whereas controls did not receive the ACEi (n=7). Perindopril decreased plasma ACE by 70% and the plasma angiotensin II to angiotensin I ratio by 57% and reduced vascular ACE to approximately 65% of control levels in both endothelium and adventitia. By contrast, AT(1) receptor binding in vascular smooth muscle cells was increased by 80% in patients treated with perindopril as confirmed by immunocytochemistry. eNOS was expressed primarily in endothelial cells, whereas little iNOS expression occurred in vascular smooth muscle cells of untreated patients. Both eNOS and iNOS expression seemed to increase during perindopril treatment. These results suggest that suppression of angiotensin II formation in the vascular wall and increased expression of eNOS and iNOS during ACE inhibition may be beneficial in reversing endothelial dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease. Because vascular AT(1) receptor expression is increased during chronic ACE inhibition, more clinical studies are required to determine whether it is necessary to combine ACE inhibitors and AT(1) receptor antagonists in clinical management of heart failure, coronary heart disease, and hypertensionHypertension 03/2002; 39(2 Pt 2):634-8. · 6.87 Impact Factor