Article

Adolescent clinical outcomes for young people with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Department of Psychological Medicine and Neurology, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Heath Park, Cardiff, UK.
The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science (Impact Factor: 7.34). 03/2010; 196(3):235-40. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.109.066274
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is recognised as a common, disabling condition. Little information is available regarding the long-term outcomes for individuals with ADHD in the UK.
To examine the 5-year outcome for a UK cohort of children with diagnosed, treated ADHD and identify whether maternal and social factors predict key outcomes.
One hundred and twenty-six school-aged children (mean age 9.4 years, s.d. = 1.7) diagnosed with ADHD were reassessed 5 years later during adolescence (mean age 14.5 years, s.d. = 1.7) for ADHD, conduct disorder and other antisocial behaviours.
Most adolescents (69.8%) continued to meet full criteria for ADHD, were known to specialist services and exhibited high levels of antisocial behaviour, criminal activity and substance use problems. Maternal childhood conduct disorder predicted offspring ADHD continuity; maternal childhood conduct disorder, lower child IQ and social class predicted offspring conduct disorder symptoms.
The treatment and monitoring of ADHD need to be intensified as outcomes are poor especially in offspring of mothers with childhood conduct disorder symptoms.

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  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by pervasive and developmentally inappropriate levels of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. There is no conclusive cause of ADHD although a number of etiologic theories have been advanced. Research across neuroanatomical, neurochemical, and genetic disciplines collectively support a physiological basis for ADHD and, within the past decade, the number of neuroimaging studies concerning ADHD has increased exponentially. The current selective review summarizes research findings concerning ADHD using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Although these technologies and studies offer promise in helping to better understand the physiologic underpinnings of ADHD, they are not without methodological problems, including inadequate sensitivity and specificity for psychiatric disorders. Consequently, neuroimaging technology, in its current state of development, should not be used to inform clinical practice.
    Developmental Neuropsychology 05/2013; 38(4):211-225. DOI:10.1080/87565641.2013.783833 · 2.67 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Adolescent problem behaviors such as conduct disorder and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often associated with alcohol problems in adulthood, particularly alcohol dependence. This association is partly a result of shared genetic liability. However, it is unclear whether ADHD, or an ADHD subtype, shares genetic influences with alcohol dependence beyond those also shared by conduct disorder. We evaluated phenotypic associations between adolescent conduct disorder and ADHD phenotypes with adult alcohol dependence in a population-based sample of adult male twins (N = 1,774). We then assessed genetic and environmental relationships among phenotypes using structural equation modeling. Individually, conduct disorder and each ADHD factor were associated with adult alcohol dependence. Results from twin modeling indicate that a genetic factor common to conduct disorder and ADHD also loads strongly onto alcohol dependence. Even after controlling for genetic factors shared with conduct disorder and other ADHD factors, the hyperactivity component of ADHD shared significant residual genetic influences with alcohol dependence. Most of the genetically mediated association between adolescent ADHD and adult alcohol dependence is shared with conduct disorder, reflecting a generalized risk to externalizing behaviors. The significant residual genetic covariance between the ADHD factor hyperactivity/impulsivity and alcohol dependence implies that impulsive behaviors less destructive/harmful than those manifested by conduct disorder can be indicative of genetic risk for adult alcohol dependence. However, the ADHD factors inattention and forgetfulness are not uniquely predictive of genetic/environmental risk for alcohol dependence.
    Journal of studies on alcohol and drugs 03/2012; 73(2):185-94. DOI:10.15288/jsad.2012.73.185 · 2.27 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Relatively little is known about the potential interplay between genetic and environmental influences on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), including gene-environment interaction (G×E). There is evidence that parenting behavior interacts with offspring genotype in the development of externalizing problems, but studies have largely focused on explicit maltreatment rather than differentiated measures of parenting behavior, including positive and negative parenting. We tested the interactive effects of the 30-base pair variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAO-A) with positive and negative parenting behavior on parent- and teacher ratings of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms among 150 6-9 year-old boys with and without ADHD. Negative parenting predicted parent and teacher ratings of inattention symptoms, but only among boys with high-activity MAO-A genotype. MAO-A genotype did not moderate the association of positive parenting and parent- and teacher ratings of ADHD. We discuss the potential role of interactive exchanges between parenting behavior and child genotype in the development and persistence of ADHD and related behavior problems.
    Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 08/2011; 40(2):165-75. DOI:10.1007/s10802-011-9553-z · 3.09 Impact Factor