Superior temporal gyrus volume in antipsychotic-naive people at risk of psychosis.
ABSTRACT Morphological abnormalities of the superior temporal gyrus have been consistently reported in schizophrenia, but the timing of their occurrence remains unclear.
To determine whether individuals exhibit superior temporal gyral changes before the onset of psychosis.
We used magnetic resonance imaging to examine grey matter volumes of the superior temporal gyrus and its subregions (planum polare, Heschl's gyrus, planum temporale, and rostral and caudal regions) in 97 antipsychotic-naive individuals at ultra-high risk of psychosis, of whom 31 subsequently developed psychosis and 66 did not, and 42 controls.
Those at risk of psychosis had significantly smaller superior temporal gyri at baseline compared with controls bilaterally, without any prominent subregional effect; however, there was no difference between those who did and did not subsequently develop psychosis.
Our findings indicate that grey matter reductions of the superior temporal gyrus are present before psychosis onset, and are not due to medication, but these baseline changes are not predictive of transition to psychosis.
- SourceAvailable from: Paolo Fusar-Poli[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Computational brain-imaging studies of individuals at familial high risk for psychosis have provided interesting results, but interpreting these findings can be a challenge due to a number of factors. We searched the literature for studies reporting whole brain voxel-based morphometry (VBM) or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) findings in people at familial high risk for schizophrenia compared with a control group. A voxel-wise meta-analysis with the effect-size version of Signed Differential Mapping (ES-SDM) identified regional abnormalities of functional brain response. Similarly, an ES-SDM meta-analysis was conducted on VBM studies. A multi-modal imaging meta-analysis was used to highlight brain regions with both structural and functional abnormalities. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria, in which a total of 815 familial high-risk individuals were compared to 685 controls. Our fMRI results revealed a number of regions of altered activation. VBM findings demonstrated both increases and decreases in grey matter density of relatives in a variety of brain regions. The multimodal analysis revealed relatives had decreased grey matter with hyper-activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus/amygdala, and decreased grey matter with hypo-activation in the thalamus. We found several regions of altered activation or structure in familial high-risk individuals. Reliable fMRI findings in the right posterior superior temporal gyrus further confirm that alteration in this area is a potential marker of risk.Psychiatry research. 11/2013;
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Repetitive patterning facilitates inferences about likely properties of sound to follow. Mismatch negativity (MMN) occurs when sound fails to match an inference. Smaller MMN in schizophrenia indexes deficient gain control (difference in utilizing a limited dynamic range). Although it is clear that this group has a lower limit to MMN size, this study addressed whether smaller MMN indicates impaired perceptual inference. MMN was elicited to four deviants in two sequences: one in which occurrence was random and one in which it was paired. Despite smaller MMN, persons with schizophrenia are equally able to reduce MMN size evoked by a deviant when its occurrence is cued. Results also expose alterations in the evoked response to repeated sounds that appear to be exacerbations of age-related amplitude decline. Since these anomalies impact the computed MMN, they highlight the need to identify all contributions to limits in gain control in schizophrenia.Psychophysiology 02/2014; · 3.29 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Brain imaging studies in schizophrenia have typically involved single assessment and cross-sectional designs, while longitudinal studies rarely incorporate more than two time points. While informative, these studies do not adequately capture potential trajectories of neurobiological change, particularly in the context of a changing clinical picture. We propose that the analysis of brain trajectories using multiple time points may inform our understanding of the illness and the effect of treatment. This paper makes the case for frequent serial neuroimaging across the course of schizophrenia psychoses and its application to active illness epsiodes to provide a detailed examination of psychosis relapse and remission.Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences 05/2014; · 2.94 Impact Factor