Efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy and other psychological treatments for adult depression: Meta-analytic study of publication bias

Department of Clinical Psychology, VU University Amsterdam, Van der Boechorststraat 1, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
The British journal of psychiatry: the journal of mental science (Impact Factor: 7.34). 03/2010; 196(3):173-8. DOI: 10.1192/bjp.bp.109.066001
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT It is not clear whether the effects of cognitive-behavioural therapy and other psychotherapies have been overestimated because of publication bias.
To examine indicators of publication bias in randomised controlled trials of psychotherapy for adult depression.
We examined effect sizes of 117 trials with 175 comparisons between psychotherapy and control conditions. As indicators of publication bias we examined funnel plots, calculated adjusted effect sizes after publication had been taken into account using Duval & Tweedie's procedure, and tested the symmetry of the funnel plots using the Begg & Mazumdar rank correlation test and Egger's test.
The mean effect size was 0.67, which was reduced after adjustment for publication bias to 0.42 (51 imputed studies). Both Begg & Mazumbar's test and Egger's test were highly significant (P<0.001).
The effects of psychotherapy for adult depression seem to be overestimated considerably because of publication bias.

    • "Publication biases have not only been found in drug studies but also in psychotherapy trials (Cuijpers et al., 2010; Flint et al., 2014). Psychotherapy trials usually have markedly smaller sample sizes than drug trials and there is a risk that small studies with negative results are not published. "
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    International clinical psychopharmacology 04/2015; 30(4). DOI:10.1097/YIC.0000000000000078 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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    • "The Sanskrit derivation is " medha, " which means " wisdom " . Physical and psychological health changes such as increased cerebral blood flow, reductions in metabolic activity , heart and respiratory rates, blood pressure, oxygen consumption , and muscle tension, decrease in symptoms of depression and anxiety, have been empirically linked to the practice of meditation [6] [7]. Although there are various styles of meditation, including Chakra yoga, Rinzai Zen, Mudra yoga, Sufism, Yoto Zen, and Buddhist insight meditation, two of the more commonly discussed forms of meditation are transcendental meditation (TM) and particularly mindfulness meditation (MM) have been found to be beneficial. "
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    06/2014; 1(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ijnss.2014.05.015
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    • "Moreover, 40% of those patients whose depression does remit will relapse within 2 years [16] and 20% are at risk of developing chronic, unremitting depression [16,17]. Generally, meta-analyses indicate that all bona fide (non-placebo) psychological treatments for depression are equally efficacious [18], and the effect sizes of psychotherapy for adult depression vary from small to moderate [19]. "
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