Psychosis Following Excessive Ingestion of Energy Drinks in a Patient With Schizophrenia
The authors report no financial relationships with commercial interests.American Journal of Psychiatry (Impact Factor: 12.3). 03/2010; 167(3):353. DOI: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2009.09101456
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.
- Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 11/2010; 45(2):179-80. DOI:10.3109/00048674.2010.529605 · 3.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To review the effects, adverse consequences, and extent of energy drink consumption among children, adolescents, and young adults. We searched PubMed and Google using "energy drink," "sports drink," "guarana," "caffeine," "taurine," "ADHD," "diabetes," "children," "adolescents," "insulin," "eating disorders," and "poison control center" to identify articles related to energy drinks. Manufacturer Web sites were reviewed for product information. According to self-report surveys, energy drinks are consumed by 30% to 50% of adolescents and young adults. Frequently containing high and unregulated amounts of caffeine, these drinks have been reported in association with serious adverse effects, especially in children, adolescents, and young adults with seizures, diabetes, cardiac abnormalities, or mood and behavioral disorders or those who take certain medications. Of the 5448 US caffeine overdoses reported in 2007, 46% occurred in those younger than 19 years. Several countries and states have debated or restricted energy drink sales and advertising. Energy drinks have no therapeutic benefit, and many ingredients are understudied and not regulated. The known and unknown pharmacology of agents included in such drinks, combined with reports of toxicity, raises concern for potentially serious adverse effects in association with energy drink use. In the short-term, pediatricians need to be aware of the possible effects of energy drinks in vulnerable populations and screen for consumption to educate families. Long-term research should aim to understand the effects in at-risk populations. Toxicity surveillance should be improved, and regulations of energy drink sales and consumption should be based on appropriate research.PEDIATRICS 02/2011; 127(3):511-28. DOI:10.1542/peds.2009-3592 · 5.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The potential harmful effects of excessive caffeine consumption remain largely unknown among psychiatric populations. Energy drinks have particularly high levels of caffeine content and have previously been shown to induce psychotic relapse. Clinical observations of three bipolar disorder patients with comorbid substance use disorder revealed an excessive consumption of energy drinks prior to manic or depressive relapse. Three patients with bipolar spectrum disorder and comorbid substance use disorder were assessed by a psychiatrist upon re-admission to a rehabilitation centre following manic or depressive relapse. The assessment was based on DSM-IV criteria and performed by a psychiatrist who specialized in bipolar spectrum disorder and comorbidities to determine the presence of manic or depressive relapse. Two patients were diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I, and the third with bipolar disorder type II. All three patients were diagnosed with comorbid substance use disorders and all three abused cocaine. In all three cases, relapse occurred following at least one week of excessive binging on energy drinks, with a maximum daily consumption of nine cans. Following cessation of energy drink consumption, two of the patients remained abstinent from drug use and maintained psychiatric stability. One patient relapsed three months post-treatment and resumed consuming cocaine and energy drinks. These clinical observations support other case reports that suggest the existence of a potential correlation between excessive energy drink consumption and relapse among psychiatric populations.Bipolar Disorders 08/2011; 13(5-6):578-80. DOI:10.1111/j.1399-5618.2011.00951.x · 4.97 Impact Factor