Generalized Petechial Rashes in Children During a Parvovirus B19 Outbreak
ABSTRACT Human parvovirus B19 infection is associated not only with erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) but also, rarely, with purpuric or petechial rashes. Most reports of these atypical rashes describe sporadic cases with skin lesions that have distinctively focal distributions. During a community outbreak of fifth disease, we investigated a cluster of illnesses in children with generalized petechial rashes to determine whether parvovirus was the causative agent and, if so, to describe more fully the clinical spectrum of petechial rashes that are associated with this virus.
Systematic evaluation was conducted by general pediatricians of children with petechial rashes for evidence of acute parvovirus infection.
During the outbreak, acute parvovirus infection was confirmed in 13 (76%) of 17 children who were evaluated for petechial rash. Confirmed case patients typically had mild constitutional symptoms, and most (11 [85%] of 13) had fever. Petechiae were typically dense and widely distributed; sometimes accentuated in the distal extremities, axillae, or groin; and usually absent from the head/neck. Most case patients had leukopenia, and several had thrombocytopenia. Parvovirus immunoglobulin M was detected in 8 (73%) of 11 acute-phase serum specimens, and immunoglobulin G was detectable only in convalescent specimens. Parvovirus DNA was detected in all 7 tested serum specimens, including 2 acute-phase specimens that were immunoglobulin M-negative. All case patients had brief, uncomplicated illnesses, but 6 were briefly hospitalized and 1 underwent a bone marrow examination. Two case patients developed erythema infectiosum during convalescence.
During an outbreak of fifth disease, parvovirus proved to be a common cause of petechial rash in children, and this rash was typically more generalized than described in case reports. Associated clinical features, hematologic abnormalities, and serologic test results are consistent with a viremia-associated illness that is distinct from and occasionally followed by erythema infectiosum.
- SourceAvailable from: Masato Takeuchi
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- "Since then, there have been a growing number of publications supporting the relationship between PPGSS and acute parvovirus infection [2,3]. For example, 13 cases with parvovirus-associated purpura were reported during a community outbreak . Initial case reports and case series documented that the eruptions were limited to the hands and feet. "
ABSTRACT: Parvovirus B19 can cause petechial rashes in the acute phase of illness as well as erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) during convalescence. This petechial rash is often called "gloves and socks" syndrome because of the typical distribution of the eruption. However, involvement of other sites (e.g., intertriginous area) and generalized involvement have been recently recognized. We report here a patient with parvovirus-associated petechiae and cephalhematoma. The patient was a previously healthy 10-year-old boy. There was a family history of fatal bleeding; his sister died of intracranial bleeding with an uncertain cause at the age of 5 months. The patient was admitted to our hospital because of sudden onset of cephalhematoma associated with fever. He reported that he had no recent head trauma but that he massaged his scalp on the day before admission. On admission, his temperature was 38.8[degree sign]C; otherwise, he was in a stable condition. Besides cephalhematoma, petechial rashes were present on his trunk and limbs. The initial laboratory tests were essentially normal, including platelet count and coagulation tests. Expanded laboratory tests were repeated to explore the etiology of his skin hemorrhage, all of which indicated that hematological disorders were unlikely. His symptoms subsided spontaneously over the next few days and he was discharged uneventfully. Anti-parvovirus IgM titer was elevated during hospitalization and typical erythema infectiosum was seen approximately 1 week after discharge. During 6 months follow-up, he remained stable without recurrence of a hemorrhagic episode. Finally, we concluded that his cephalhematoma was responsible for acute parvoviral infection. This is believed to be the first report describing a possible association between parvovirus B19 infection and cephalhematoma. Parvovirus B19 infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children who present with unexplained hemorrhage such as cephalhematoma or petechiae.BMC Infectious Diseases 10/2013; 13(1):465. DOI:10.1186/1471-2334-13-465 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: This paper reports on a method of image segmentation using a threshold value determined via fuzzy logic. Image segmentation is the core to pattern recognition or is used as the initial process in many machine vision applications. Images are fuzzy due to the imprecision of gray values and vagueness in various image definitions. The fuzzy-based segmentation reported in this paper is an automated threshold calculation. The threshold value computed by utilizing the histogram of the image and the measure of fuzziness constitute the initial step in the proposed segmentation procedure. The threshold value is then inputted into the "split and merge" method of segmentation. The results of the segmentation procedure are presented in this paper and they show promising outputSignal Processing and its Applications, Sixth International, Symposium on. 2001; 02/2001
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although atypical exanthems pose a severe diagnostic challenge, they have not been studied widely. OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical features, laboratory parameters and other characteristics that help establish the etiology of atypical exanthems. METHODS: We collected the following information from 260 consecutive patients with atypical exanthems, including 108 children and 152 adults: demographic data, exanthem and enanthem morphology, clinical symptoms, month of outbreak and total duration. Throat, rectal, and vesicle swabs as well as urine and skin samples were examined for bacterial and viral signs. Serologic studies were performed for the most common infectious agents. RESULTS: Seven morphological patterns were identified: macular erythema, papular erythema, macular-papular erythema, erythematovesicular, macular-papular erythema with petechiae, erythema with pustules, and urticarial. Ninety-four cases were due to viruses, 38 to bacteria, 65 to drugs, 3 to parasites, and one to viruses-plus-drugs. Nineteen of the 25 cases with a petechial pattern had an infectious etiology (12 viral and 7 bacterial) and only 4 were iatrogenic. Sixty-one of 69 patients with enanthems were infectious (57 viral and 4 bacterial), 6 were iatrogenic, and 2 remained undiagnosed. The petechial pattern was infectious in 80% of cases (14 viral and 2 bacterial). Four cases were iatrogenic. During the spring and summer, 60% of exanthems were infectious and 21% were iatrogenic. Picornavirus infections exhibited summer prevalence (57%), peaking in July. LIMITATIONS: There were a variable number of patients with each of the morphological patterns. CONCLUSIONS: Morphological patterns, seasonal occurrence, and enanthem are key for etiological diagnosis of atypical exanthems.Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 05/2012; 67(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jaad.2012.04.014 · 4.45 Impact Factor