Article

Trends in Childhood Violence and Abuse Exposure: Evidence From 2 National Surveys

Crimes Against Children Research Center, University of New Hampshire, 126 Horton Social Science Center, 20 College Road, Durham, NH 03824, USA.
JAMA Pediatrics (Impact Factor: 4.25). 03/2010; 164(3):238-42. DOI: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2009.283
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To assess trends in children's exposure to abuse, violence, and crime victimizations.
An analysis based on a comparison of 2 cross-sectional national telephone surveys using identical questions conducted in 2003 and 2008.
Telephone interview.
Experiences of children aged 2 to 17 years (2030 children in 2003 and 4046 children in 2008) were assessed through interviews with their caretakers and the children themselves. Outcome Measure Responses to the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire.
Several types of child victimization were reported significantly less often in 2008 than in 2003: physical assaults, sexual assaults, and peer and sibling victimizations, including physical bullying. There were also significant declines in psychological and emotional abuse by caregivers, exposure to community violence, and the crime of theft. Physical abuse and neglect by caregivers did not decline, and witnessing the abuse of a sibling increased.
The declines apparent in this analysis parallel evidence from other sources, including police data, child welfare data, and the National Crime Victimization Survey, suggesting reductions in various types of childhood victimization in recent years.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Sherry Hamby, Jul 05, 2015
1 Follower
 · 
143 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose To estimate the likelihood that a recent cohort of children would be exposed to sexual abuse and sexual assault by age 17 in the United States. Methods This analysis draws on three very similarly designed national telephone surveys of youth in 2003, 2008, and 2011, resulting in a pooled sample of 708 17-year-olds, 781 15-year-olds, and 804 16-year-olds. Results The lifetime experience of 17-year-olds with sexual abuse and sexual assault was 26.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 19.8–33.5) for girls and 5.1% (95% CI 2.6–7.6) for boys. The lifetime experience with sexual abuse and sexual assault at the hands of adult perpetrators exclusively was 11.2% (95% CI 6.4–16.1) for females and 1.9% (95% CI .5–3.4) for males. For females, considerable risk for sexual abuse and assault was concentrated in late adolescence, as the rate rose from 16.8% (95% CI 11.5–22.2) for 15-year-old females to 26.6% (95% CI 19.8–33.5) for 17-year-old females. For males, it rose from 4.3% (95% CI 1.9–6.8) at 15 years to 5.1% (2.6–7.6) at 17 years. Conclusions Self-report surveys in late adolescence reveal high rates of lifetime experience with sexual abuse and sexual assault at the hands of both adults and peers. Because of high continuing victimization during the late teen years, assessments are most complete when conducted among the oldest youth.
    Journal of Adolescent Health 09/2014; 55(3). DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.12.026
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Violence has been linked to poor academic outcomes in youth, but there is little understanding of the mechanisms underlying this relation. This longitudinal survey study investigated whether sleep disturbance potentially mediates the associations between academic achievement and two forms of violence exposure--community violence and peer victimization-- in 498 seventh-grade youth. Structural equation models showed that community violence was associated with lower grade point average (GPA) directly and indirectly via sleep problems, whereas peer victimization was associated with lower GPA just indirectly via sleep problems. The structural models controlled for potential confounds, including depressive symptoms, intrusive thoughts and absenteeism. The findings suggest that failing grades and sleepiness in school may be signs that youth are exposed to violence. Interventions to improve sleep hygiene and reduce violence exposure may help to improve academic outcomes for youth.
    Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 01/2013; 41(8). DOI:10.1007/s10802-013-9709-0
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Whether bullying in schools is increasing, as is widely believed, was investigated drawing upon empirical studies undertaken in a wide range of countries in which findings had been published describing its prevalence at different points in time between 1990 and 2009. Results do not support the view that reported bullying in general has increased during this period; in fact, a significant decrease in bullying has been reported in many countries. However, there are some indications that cyber bullying, as opposed to traditional bullying, has increased, at least during some of this period. The reported decreases in the prevalence of school bullying are consistent with reports of significant but small reductions in peer victimisation following the implementation of anti-bullying programs in schools world-wide. KeywordsBullying–Cyber bullying–Victimization–School children–Prevalence rate
    Social Psychology of Education 12/2011; 14(4):441-455. DOI:10.1007/s11218-011-9158-y