The role of Cys108 in Trigonopsis variabilis d-amino acid oxidase examined through chemical oxidation studies and point mutations C108S and C108D.
ABSTRACT Oxidative modification of Trigonopsis variabilis D-amino acid oxidase in vivo is traceable as the conversion of Cys108 into a stable cysteine sulfinic acid, causing substantial loss of activity and thermostability of the enzyme. To simulate native and modified oxidase each as a microheterogeneity-resistant entity, we replaced Cys108 individually by a serine (C108S) and an aspartate (C108D), and characterized the purified variants with regard to their biochemical and kinetic properties, thermostability, and reactivity towards oxidation by hypochlorite. Tandem MS analysis of tryptic peptides derived from a hypochlorite-treated inactive preparation of recombinant wild-type oxidase showed that Cys108 was converted into cysteine sulfonic acid, mimicking the oxidative modification of native enzyme as isolated. Colorimetric titration of protein thiol groups revealed that in the presence of ammonium benzoate (0.12 mM), the two muteins were not oxidized at cysteines whereas in the wild-type enzyme, one thiol group was derivatized. Each site-directed replacement caused a conformational change in D-amino acid oxidase, detected with an assortment of probes, and resulted in a turnover number for the O2-dependent reaction with D-Met which in comparison with the corresponding wild-type value was decreased two- and threefold for C108S and C108D, respectively. Kinetic analysis of thermal denaturation at 50 degrees C was used to measure the relative contributions of partial unfolding and cofactor dissociation to the overall inactivation rate in each of the three enzymes. Unlike wild-type, C108S and C108D released the cofactor in a quasi-irreversible manner and were therefore not stabilized by external FAD against loss of activity. The results support a role of the anionic side chain of Cys108 in the fine-tuning of activity and stability of D-amino acid oxidase, explaining why C108S was a surprisingly poor mimic of the native enzyme.
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ABSTRACT: DJ-1 is a conserved, disease-associated protein that protects against oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage in multiple organisms. Human DJ-1 contains a functionally essential cysteine residue (Cys106) whose oxidation is important for regulating protein function by an unknown mechanism. This residue is well-conserved in other DJ-1 homologues, including two (DJ-1α and DJ-1β) in Drosophila melanogaster. Because D. melanogaster is a powerful model system for studying DJ-1 function, we have determined the crystal structure and impact of cysteine oxidation on Drosophila DJ-1β. The structure of D. melanogaster DJ-1β is similar to that of human DJ-1, although two important residues in the human protein, Met26 and His126, are not conserved in DJ-1β. His126 in human DJ-1 is substituted with a tyrosine in DJ-1β, and this residue is not able to compose a putative catalytic dyad with Cys106 that was proposed to be important in the human protein. The reactive cysteine in DJ-1 is oxidized readily to the cysteine-sulfinic acid in both flies and humans, and this may regulate the cytoprotective function of the protein. We show that the oxidation of this conserved cysteine residue to its sulfinate form (Cys-SO(2)(-)) results in considerable thermal stabilization of both Drosophila DJ-1β and human DJ-1. Therefore, protein stabilization is one potential mechanism by which cysteine oxidation may regulate DJ-1 function in vivo. More generally, most close DJ-1 homologues are likely stabilized by cysteine-sulfinic acid formation but destabilized by further oxidation, suggesting that they are biphasically regulated by oxidative modification.Biochemistry 04/2012; 51(18):3799-807. · 3.38 Impact Factor