Metabolism of substrates incorporated into phospholipid vesicles by mouse 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1α-hydroxylase (CYP27B1)

School of Biomedical, Biomolecular and Chemical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia.
The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology (Impact Factor: 4.05). 02/2010; 119(3-5):171-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2010.02.022
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT CYP27B1 catalyzes the 1alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 to 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, the hormonally active form of vitamin D3. To further characterize mouse CYP27B1, it was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and its activity measured on substrates incorporated into phospholipid vesicles, which served as a model of the inner mitochondrial membrane. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 in vesicles underwent 1alpha-hydroxylation with similar kinetics, the catalytic rate constants (k(cat)) were 41 and 48mol/min/mol P450, respectively, while K(m) values were 5.9 and 4.6mmol/mol phospholipid, respectively. CYP27B1 showed inhibition when substrate concentrations in the membrane were greater than 4 times K(m), more pronounced with 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 than 25-hydroxyvitamin D2. Higher catalytic efficiency was seen in vesicles prepared from dioleoyl phosphatidylcholine and cardiolipin than for dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine vesicles. CYP27B1 also catalyzed 1alpha-hydroxylation of vesicle-associated 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 20-hydroxyvitamin D3, and 25-hydroxylation of 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D2, but with much lower efficiency than for 25(OH)D3. This study shows that CYP27B1 can hydroxylate 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 associated with phospholipid membranes with the highest activity yet reported for the enzyme. The expressed enzyme has low activity at higher concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in membranes, revealing that substrate inhibition may contribute to the regulation of the activity of this enzyme.

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    • "and others found no significant difference between the calciferol formulations in their effect in lowering parathyroid hormone (PTH) [2] [7]. Since 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH) 2 D) also regulates PTH, the discordant effects of cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol therapy on total 25OHD and PTH could be explained by differences in the catalytic rate of 1-α-hydroxylation by CYP27B1 of the respective metabolites, or differences in substrate inhibition [8]. Most circulating 25OHD and 1,25(OH) 2 D is bound with high affinity to vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), and only a small fraction remains unbound [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: We previously showed that oral cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol have comparable effects in decreasing circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH), despite a greater increase in total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration with cholecalciferol supplementation. However, the effects of cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol on total serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), free 25OHD and free 1,25(OH)2D concentrations have not been previously studied. We randomized 95 hip fracture patients (aged 83 ± 8 years) with vitamin D deficiency (serum 25OHD <50 nmol/L) to oral supplementation with either cholecalciferol 1000 IU/day (n=47) or ergocalciferol 1000 IU/day (n=48) for three months. All were given matching placebos of the alternative treatment to maintain blinding. We measured serum 25OHD (high-pressure liquid chromatography), 1,25(OH)2D (Diasorin radioimmunoassay), DBP (immunonephelometry), ionized calcium (Bayer 800 ion-selective electrode) and albumin (bromocresol green) concentrations before and after treatment. We calculated free and bioavailable concentrations of the vitamin D metabolites using albumin and DBP, and calculated free vitamin D metabolite indices as the ratios between the molar concentrations of the vitamin D metabolites and DBP. Seventy participants (74%) completed the study with paired samples for analysis. Total serum 1,25(OH)2D did not change significantly with either treatment (p>0.05, post-treatment vs baseline). Both treatments were associated with comparable increases in DBP (cholecalciferol: +18%, ergocalciferol: +16%, p=0.32 between groups), albumin (cholecalciferol: +31%, ergocalciferol: +21%, p=0.29 between groups) and calculated free 25OHD (cholecalciferol: +46%, ergocalciferol: +36%, p=0.08), with comparable decreases in free 1,25(OH)2D (cholecalciferol: -17%, ergocalciferol: -19%, p=0.32 between groups). In the treatment-adherent subgroup the increase in ionized calcium was marginally greater with cholecalciferol compared with ergocalciferol (cholecalciferol: +8%, ergocalciferol: +5%, p=0.03 between groups). There were no significant differences between the treatments in their effects on the calculated bioavailable concentrations or free indices of the vitamin D metabolites (p>0.05 between groups). In vitamin D-deficient hip fracture patients, oral supplementation with cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol had no effect on total serum 1,25(OH)2D, and comparable effects on DBP and free vitamin D metabolite concentrations. This is despite cholecalciferol having greater effects than ergocalciferol in increasing total 25OHD, and in increasing ionized calcium in treatment-adherent subjects. These findings may explain why cholecalciferol and ergocalciferol supplementation result in similar magnitudes of PTH reduction, but implicate potential differences in other vitamin D metabolites, such as 24,25(OH)2D, that could explain their different effects on ionized calcium.
    Bone 06/2013; 56(2). DOI:10.1016/j.bone.2013.06.012 · 4.46 Impact Factor
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    • "The rate of CYP27B1 activity in mitochondria of living cells is unknown but CYP27B1 enzymatic activity has been measured in reconstitution studies with artificial vesicles [46]; thus, we have assumed an enzyme rate of 0.1 µM/hr consistent with that report. The amount of CYP27B1 in cells is also not known. "
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    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D binding protein (DBP) plays a key role in the bioavailability of active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D) and its precursor 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), but accurate analysis of DBP-bound and free 25OHD and 1,25(OH)(2)D is difficult. To address this, two new mathematical models were developed to estimate: 1) serum levels of free 25OHD/1,25(OH)(2)D based on DBP concentration and genotype; 2) the impact of DBP on the biological activity of 25OHD/1,25(OH)(2)D in vivo. The initial extracellular steady state (eSS) model predicted that 50 nM 25OHD and 100 pM 1,25(OH)(2)D), <0.1% 25OHD and <1.5% 1,25(OH)(2)D are 'free' in vivo. However, for any given concentration of total 25OHD, levels of free 25OHD are higher for low affinity versus high affinity forms of DBP. The eSS model was then combined with an intracellular (iSS) model that incorporated conversion of 25OHD to 1,25(OH)(2)D via the enzyme CYP27B1, as well as binding of 1,25(OH)(2)D to the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The iSS model was optimized to 25OHD/1,25(OH)(2)D-mediated in vitro dose-responsive induction of the vitamin D target gene cathelicidin (CAMP) in human monocytes. The iSS model was then used to predict vitamin D activity in vivo (100% serum). The predicted induction of CAMP in vivo was minimal at basal settings but increased with enhanced expression of VDR (5-fold) and CYP27B1 (10-fold). Consistent with the eSS model, the iSS model predicted stronger responses to 25OHD for low affinity forms of DBP. Finally, the iSS model was used to compare the efficiency of endogenously synthesized versus exogenously added 1,25(OH)(2)D. Data strongly support the endogenous model as the most viable mode for CAMP induction by vitamin D in vivo. These novel mathematical models underline the importance of DBP as a determinant of vitamin D 'status' in vivo, with future implications for clinical studies of vitamin D status and supplementation.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(1):e30773. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0030773 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "At a molecular level, there are differences in the affinity of CYP24A1, being lower for 1,25(OH)2D2 than for 1,25(OH)2D3(56). However, 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 are metabolised at similar rates by CYP27B1(57,58) and CYP24A1 enzymes(57), although differences in the hydroxylation products and downstream metabolites of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 may exist(59,60). At the physiological level, however, the majority of evidence suggests no difference in the suppressive effect of 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 on PTH(31,32,61–64). "
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    ABSTRACT: 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) half-life is a potential biomarker for investigating vitamin D metabolism and requirements. We performed a pilot study to assess the approach and practical feasibility of measuring 25(OH)D half-life after an oral dose. A total of twelve healthy Gambian men aged 18-23 years were divided into two groups to investigate the rate and timing of (1) absorption and (2) plasma disappearance after an 80 nmol oral dose of 25(OH)D2. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and, in the first group, every 2 h post-dose for 12 h, at 24 h, 48 h and on day 15. In the second group, fasting blood samples were collected on days 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21. Urine was collected for 2 h after the first morning void at baseline and on day 15. 25(OH)D2 plasma concentration was measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem MS/MS and corrected for baseline. Biomarkers of vitamin D, Ca and P metabolism were measured at baseline and on day 15. The peak plasma concentration of 25(OH)D2 was 9·6 (sd 0·9) nmol/l at 4·4 (sd 1·8) h. The terminal slope of 25(OH)D2 disappearance was identified to commence from day 6. The terminal half-life of plasma 25(OH)D2 was 13·4 (sd 2·7) d. There were no significant differences in plasma 25(OH)D3, total 1,25(OH)2D, parathyroid hormone, P, Ca and ionised Ca and urinary Ca and P between baseline and day 15 and between the two groups. The present study provides data on the plasma response to oral 25(OH)D2 that will underpin and contribute to the further development of studies to investigate 25(OH)D half-life.
    The British journal of nutrition 09/2011; 107(8):1128-37. DOI:10.1017/S0007114511004132 · 3.34 Impact Factor
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