Hepatotoxicity and effectiveness of a Nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients with or without viral hepatitis B or C infection in Cameroon.

Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, University Montpellier 1, UMR 145, Montpellier, France.
BMC Public Health (Impact Factor: 2.32). 03/2010; 10:105. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-105
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Coinfection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) in HIV-infected patients receiving a commonly used nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy is a major concern for African clinicians owing to its high prevalence, the infrequent testing and treatment of viral hepatitis, and the impact of liver disease on the tolerability and effectiveness of anti-HIV treatment. We compared the hepatotoxicity and the immunological, virological and clinical effectiveness of a nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy between patients infected with HIV only and patients coinfected with hepatitis B or C virus in Cameroon.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted among HIV-1-infected patients. Plasma HBV DNA and HCV RNA were tested in positive or indeterminate samples for HBsAg or HCV antibodies, respectively. All patients received nevirapine and lamivudine plus stavudine or zidovudine.
Of 169 HIV-1-infected patients with a median baseline CD4 count of 135 cells/mm3 (interquartile range [IQR] 67-218), 21% were coinfected with HBV or HCV. In coinfected patients, the median viral load was 2.47 x 107 IU/mL for HBV (IQR 3680-1.59 x 108) and 928 000 IU/mL for HCV (IQR 178 400-2.06 x 106). Multivariate analyses showed that the risk of hepatotoxicity was 2-fold higher in coinfected patients (p < 0.01). The response to antiretroviral therapy was however comparable between monoinfected and coinfected patients in terms of CD4 cell count increase (p = 0.8), HIV-1 viral load below 400 copies/mL (p = 0.9), death (p = 0.3) and death or new AIDS-defining event (p = 0.1). Nevirapine was replaced by a protease inhibitor in 4 patients owing to hepatotoxicity.
This study suggests that the nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy could be used safely as first-line treatment in patients with low CD4 cell count in Africa despite frequent coinfections with HBV or HCV and infrequent testing of these infections. Although testing for HBV and HCV should be systematically performed before initiating antiretroviral therapy, transaminases elevations at baseline or during treatment should be a decisive argument for testing when hepatitis status is unknown.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Due to the high efficacy of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), the number of patients living with HIV is increasing. Chronic HCV infection has become a leading cause of non-AIDS related morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV infection.
    Hepatitis Monthly 08/2014; 14(8):e15426. DOI:10.5812/hepatmon.15426 · 1.25 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: : The purpose of this review was to outline the interaction between HIV and noncommunicable diseases affecting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, liver, and nutritional disorders in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and to identify research priorities. Noncommunicable GI tract disorders are only moderately influenced by HIV, and peptic ulceration is actually less common. However, the impact of HIV on GI cancers needs further investigation. HIV interacts strongly with environmental enteropathy, exacerbating malabsorption of nutrients and drugs. HIV has 2 major effects on noncommunicable liver disease: drug-induced liver injury and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (particularly in persons of African genetic descent). The effect of HIV on nutrition was one of the first markers of the epidemic in the 1980s, and HIV continues to have major nutritional consequences. Childhood malnutrition and HIV frequently coexist in some regions, for example, southern Africa, resulting in powerful negative interactions with poorer responses to standard nutritional rehabilitation. HIV and nutritional care need to be better integrated, but many questions on how best to do this remain unanswered. Across the spectrum of GI, hepatic, and nutritional disorders in HIV infection, there is increasing evidence that the microbiome may play an important role in disease pathogenesis, but work in this area, especially in low- and middle-income countries, is in its infancy.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives The aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence and epidemiological features of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among patients newly diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in China. Methods Two thousand and forty patients newly diagnosed with HIV/AIDS from 10 provinces in China were selected during 2009 to 2010. Serum samples obtained from each individual were screened for HBV and HCV serum markers [HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), HBV surface antibody (HBsAb), HBV envelope antigen (HBeAg), HBV envelope antibody (HBeAb), HBV core antibody (HBcAb) and HCV antibody (HCVAb)]; liver function tests were also performed. Demographics and medical histories were collected. ResultsOf the 2040 patients, 741 (36.3%) were positive for at least one HBV and HCV serum marker; 300 (14.71%) were HCVAb positive, and 248 (12.16%) were isolated HCVAb positive; 222 (10.9%) were positive for HBsAg; 19 (0.93%) were positive for both HBsAg and HCVAb. The highest prevalence of HBsAg positivity was found in Guangxi (15.31%), followed by Guangdong (15.19%) and Shanghai (14.36%). The highest prevalence of HCVAb positivity was found in Xinjiang (43.18%), followed by Henan (39.06%) and Yunnan (27.36%). The proportion of patients with abnormal liver function in patients positive for HCVAb and/or HBsAg was significantly higher than that in those who were negative for both HCVAb and HBsAg (P Conclusions The seroprevalence of HBV and HCV among patients newly diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in China is high. HBsAg and HCVAb positivity prevalences were found to vary significantly in different provinces in China. Patients newly diagnosed with HIV/AIDS and coinfected with HBV and HCV are at higher risk of abnormal liver function. It is necessary to routinely screen for HBV and HCV infection among patients newly diagnosed with HIV/AIDS.
    HIV Medicine 03/2013; 14(3). DOI:10.1111/j.1468-1293.2012.01048.x · 3.45 Impact Factor

Full-text (3 Sources)

Available from
May 16, 2014