A Randomized Study of the Effects of T'ai Chi on Muscle Strength, Bone Mineral Density, and Fear of Falling in Women with Osteoarthritis
ABSTRACT Individuals with osteoarthritis can experience difficulty walking and poor strength, possibly leading to falls and fractures. Exercise has been found to increase strength and bone mineral density. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 6 months of t'ai chi on knee muscle strength, bone mineral density, and fear of falling in older women with osteoarthritis.
Eighty-two (82) women with osteoarthritis, recruited from outpatient clinics and community health centers, were randomly assigned to either a t'ai chi group and took part in a t'ai chi program, or a control group. Of these, 30 subjects (mean age = 63 years) in the t'ai chi group and 35 (mean age = 61 years) in the control group completed post-test measures at 6 months.
After the 6-month study period, subjects in the t'ai chi program had significantly greater knee extensor endurance (pre- to post-test mean increase = 36.4 W/kg, versus 1.1 W/kg for the controls), and significantly greater bone mineral density in the neck of the proximal femur (mean change = 0.09, versus -0.10 for the controls), Ward's triangle (mean change = 0.04, versus -0.04 for the controls), and trochanter (mean change = 0.07, versus -0.05 for the controls) than the controls. However, knee extensor and flexor strength did not differ significantly between the groups. The fear of falling during daily activities reduced significantly more in the t'ai chi group (mean change = -2.40, versus 0.66 for the controls).
T'ai chi increased knee extensor muscle endurance and bone mineral density in older women with osteoarthritis, and decreased their fear of falling during daily activities. Further study with long-term follow-up is needed to substantiate the role of t'ai chi exercise in the prevention of fall and its related fracture.
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ABSTRACT: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic condition characterized by degeneration of cartilage and its underlying bone within a joint. With no cure currently available, the goals of treating OA are to alleviate pain, maintain, or improve joint mobility, increase the muscle strength of the joints, and minimize the disabling effects of the disease. Recent research has suggested that complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) exercises may improve OA symptoms. This paper covers CAM mind-body exercises-Tai Chi, qigong, and yoga-for OA management and evaluates their benefits in pain reduction, muscle strength, physical function, stiffness, balance, fear of falling, self-efficacy, quality of life, and psychological outcomes in patients with OA, based on randomized controlled trials published. Findings from the literature suggest that CAM exercises demonstrate considerable promise in the management of OA. Future studies require rigorous randomized controlled trials with larger sample sizes.07/2011; 2011:364319. DOI:10.1155/2011/364319
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ABSTRACT: Chronic musculoskeletal conditions in the lower extremities, particularly arthritis, and the chronic pain associated with them, are independent risk factors for falls, with approximately 50% of people with arthritis reporting one or more falls. Despite this, few studies have specifically addressed balance dysfunction, falls risk and falls incidence in people with arthritis. This review aimed to identify potential factors contributing to the increased risk of falls in people with lower limb osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis and to summarise the evidence base for effective exercise interventions targeted to reduce their risk of falls. A systematic search of the literature was conducted in February 2010 and included the following databases: MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Allied and Complementary Medicine, Cochrane Library and PsycINFO. Only three studies that investigated exercise programmes for people with lower limb arthritis met all inclusion criteria, but none used falls as an outcome measure. To broaden the review, systematic reviews that assessed the effectiveness of exercise interventions for fall prevention in older people were also included. The presence of any form of lower limb arthritis and the associated consequences including pain, balance impairment, reduced muscle strength and reduced function are all associated with increased risk of falling. Due to the link between musculoskeletal pain and the increased risk of falls, further research needs to investigate which type of exercise programme will be effective in reducing the risk of falls in populations with arthritis in the lower limbs.European Review of Aging and Physical Activity 04/2011; 9(1). DOI:10.1007/s11556-011-0086-9 · 0.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The safety and health benefits of Tai Chi mind-body exercise has been documented in a large number of clinical studies focused on specific diseases and health conditions. The objective of this systematic review is to more comprehensively summarize the evidence base of clinical studies of Tai Chi for healthcare. We searched for all types of clinical studies on Tai chi in PubMed, the Cochrane Library and four major Chinese electronic databases from their inception to July 2013. Data were analyzed using SPSS17.0 software. A total of 507 studies published between 1958 and 2013 were identified, including 43 (8.3%) systematic reviews of clinical studies, 255 (50.3%) randomized clinical trials, 90 (17.8%) non-randomized controlled clinical studies, 115 (22.7%) case series and 4 (0.8%) case reports. The top 10 diseases/conditions was hypertension, diabetes, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis or osteopenia, breast cancer, heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary heart disease, schizophrenia, and depression. Many healthy participants practiced Tai Chi for the purpose of health promotion or preservation. Yang style Tai Chi was the most popular, and Tai Chi was frequently practiced two to three 1-hour sessions per week for 12 weeks. Tai Chi was used alone in more than half of the studies (58.6%), while in other studies Tai Chi was applied in combination with other therapies including medications, health education and other physical therapies. The majority of studies (94.1%) reported positive effects of Tai Chi, 5.1% studies reported uncertain effects and 0.8% studies reported negative effects. No serious adverse events related to Tai Chi were reported. The quantity and evidence base of clinical studies on Tai Chi is substantial. However, there is a wide variation in Tai Chi intervention studied and the reporting of Tai Chi intervention needs to be improved. Further well-designed and reported studies are recommended to confirm the effects of Tai Chi for the frequently reported diseases/conditions.PLoS ONE 03/2015; 10(3):e0120655. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0120655 · 3.53 Impact Factor