Outcomes after surgery for cervical spine deformity: review of the literature.
ABSTRACT Symptomatic cervical kyphosis can result from a variety of causes. Symptoms can include pain, neurological deficits, and functional limitation due to loss of horizontal gaze.
The authors review the long-term functional and radiographic outcomes following surgery for symptomatic cervical kyphosis by performing a PubMed database literature search.
Fourteen retrospective studies involving a total of 399 patients were identified. Surgical intervention included ventral, dorsal, or circumferential approaches. Analysis of the degree of deformity correction and functional parameters demonstrated significant postsurgical improvement. Overall, patient satisfaction appeared high. Five studies reported mortality with rates ranging from 3.1 to 6.7%. Major medical complications after surgery were reported in 5 studies with rates ranging from 3.1 to 44.4%. The overall neurological complication rate was 13.5%.
Although complications are not insignificant, surgery appears to be an effective option when conservative measures fail to provide relief.
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ABSTRACT: Study Design. Prospective radiographic analysis of cranial center of mass, C2, and C7 plumb lines in young and elderly asymptomatic individuals.Objective. Establish a normal range for cranial sagittal balance for both young and elderly asymptomatic individuals.Summary of Background Data. Global sagittal balance must account for the position of the head in relation to the spine and pelvis. The C7 plumb line defines thoracolumbar sagittal balance and has been shown to have significant impact on patient outcomes. However, the C7 plumb line fails to take into consideration the position of the head in relation to the pelvis.Methods. 100 asymptomatic 20-40 year-old patients and 100 asymptomatic 60-80 year-old patients were enrolled. 14×36 inch standing plain radiographs were obtained. Cranial center of mass, C2, and C7 plumb lines were drawn and measured from the superior posterior endplate of S1.Results. 78 asymptomatic 20-40 year-old patients and 62 asymptomatic 60-80 year-old patients had adequate radiographs. The mean plumb line values in the 20-40 year-old patients and 60-80 year-old patients respectively were as follows; CCOM 9.0 mm (SD = 31.5 mm) and 41.2 mm (SD = 35.7 mm); C2 -2.7 mm (SD = 32.7 mm) and 32.1 mm (SD = 33.6 mm); C7 -16.4 mm (SD = 31.5 mm) and 10.6 mm (SD = 27.8 mm). One-way ANOVA and Student t-tests confirmed that these mean plumb line values were significantly different between young and elderly patients (p<0.001). The change at each level over time was highly correlated with the other levels (R > 0.97, p<.001) as did the degree of change between groups (R > 0.90, p<.001).Conclusion. Spinal-pelvic alignment in conjunction with CCOM has increased our understanding of spinal balance by including the head and may better represent true global spinal balance. CCOM is an easily measured parameter by using the nasion-inion technique.Spine 09/2012; · 2.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Outcomes for minimally invasive scoliosis correction surgery have been reported for mild adult scoliosis. Larger curves historically have been treated with open surgical procedures including facet resections or posterior column osteotomies, which have been associated with high-volume blood loss. Further, minimally invasive techniques have been largely reported in the setting of degenerative scoliosis. We describe the effects of circumferential minimally invasive surgery (cMIS) for moderate to severe scoliosis in terms of (1) operative time and blood loss, (2) overall health and disease-specific patient-reported outcomes, (3) deformity correction and fusion rate, and (4) frequency and types of complications. Between January 2007 and January 2012, we performed 50 cMIS adult idiopathic scoliosis corrections in patients with a Cobb angle of greater than 30° but less than 75° who did not have prior thoracolumbar fusion surgery; this series represented all patients we treated surgically during that time meeting those indications. Our general indications for this approach during that period were increasing back pain unresponsive to nonoperative therapy with cosmetic and radiographic worsening of curves. Surgical times and estimated blood loss were recorded. Functional clinical outcomes including VAS pain score, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and SF-36 were recorded preoperatively and postoperatively. Patients' deformity correction was assessed on pre- and postoperative 36-inch (91-cm) standing films and fusion was assessed on CT scan. Minimum followup was 24 months (mean, 48 months; range, 24-77 months). Mean blood loss was 613 mL for one-stage surgery and 763 mL for two-stage surgery. Mean operative time was 351 minutes for one-stage surgery and 482 minutes for two-stage surgery. At last followup, mean VAS and ODI scores decreased from 5.7 and 44 preoperatively to 2.9 and 22 (p < 0.001 and 0.03, respectively) and mean SF-36 score increased from 48 preoperatively to 74 (p = 0.026). Mean Cobb angle and sagittal vertical axis decreased from 42° and 51 mm preoperatively to 16° and 27 mm postoperatively (both p < 0.001). An 88% fusion rate was confirmed on CT scan. Perioperative complications occurred in 11 of the 50 patients (22%), with delayed complications needing further surgery in 10 more patients at last followup. cMIS provides for good clinical and radiographic outcomes for moderate (30°-75°) adult idiopathic scoliosis. Patients undergoing cMIS should be carefully selected to avoid fixed, rigid deformities and a preoperative sagittal vertical axis of greater than 10 cm; surgeons should consider alternative techniques in those patients. Level IV, therapeutic study. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 03/2014; · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Regardless of the etiology, severe cervical deformities can be extremely debilitating and are a challenge to correct. Often a multi-modality team approach is required to safely and effectively reduce the deformity, provide adequate decompression, and ensure solid fixation and fusion. In cases of iatrogenic cervical deformity necessitating five-level corpectomy and fixation, the feasibility, safety, and durability of this procedure remains unknown. RESULTS: We describe a patient who presented with debilitating pain and inability to eat due to an iatrogenic chin-on-chest cervical kyphotic deformity. The patient underwent a back-front-back staged procedure requiring five-level cervical vertebrectomy, C3-T1 anterior fixation, and occipital to T5 posterior fusion, resulting in successful reduction of cervical kyphosis from 75 to 0 degrees. At 6 months post-operatively, the patient demonstrated marked improvement in neurologic function and reported substantial improvements in neck pain-specific disability (NDI) and quality of life (SF-12 and EQ-5D). CONCLUSION: The feasibility and safety of five-level vertebrectomy and reconstruction for chin-on-chest deformity remains poorly described. The current case suggests that thoughtful planning that involves maximizing the patient's health status, judicious use of traction under direct neurological examination, staged circumferential release, and design of a construct that provides anterior and posterior column support with several points of fixation beyond the axis of rotation will attenuate the risk of peri-operative morbidity and potentiate the durability of deformity correction.European Spine Journal 05/2013; · 2.47 Impact Factor