Outcomes after surgery for cervical spine deformity: review of the literature
ABSTRACT Symptomatic cervical kyphosis can result from a variety of causes. Symptoms can include pain, neurological deficits, and functional limitation due to loss of horizontal gaze.
The authors review the long-term functional and radiographic outcomes following surgery for symptomatic cervical kyphosis by performing a PubMed database literature search.
Fourteen retrospective studies involving a total of 399 patients were identified. Surgical intervention included ventral, dorsal, or circumferential approaches. Analysis of the degree of deformity correction and functional parameters demonstrated significant postsurgical improvement. Overall, patient satisfaction appeared high. Five studies reported mortality with rates ranging from 3.1 to 6.7%. Major medical complications after surgery were reported in 5 studies with rates ranging from 3.1 to 44.4%. The overall neurological complication rate was 13.5%.
Although complications are not insignificant, surgery appears to be an effective option when conservative measures fail to provide relief.
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ABSTRACT: Cervical kyphosis is an uncommon but potentially debilitating and challenging condition. We reviewed the etiology, presentation, clinical and radiological evaluation, and treatment of cervical kyphosis. Based on the current controversy as to the ideal mode of surgical management, we paid particular attention to the available surgical strategies. There are three approaches for cervical kyphosis: the anterior, posterior or combined procedures. The principal indication for the posterior strategy is a flexible kyphosis or kyphosis caused by ankylosing spondylitis. The main point of debate is between the choice of the anterior or the combined strategy. The two strategies were compared with regard to clinical outcome, correction of deformity, rate of fusion, complications, revision surgery, and mortality. The combined strategy appears to result in a greater degree of correction than the anterior-alone strategy, and it is more likely to improve the cervical alignment to achieve a lordosis. However, the procedure carries a higher rate of postoperative neurological deterioration, complications, revision surgery, and mortality. Although the anterior-alone strategy achieves a smaller reduction of cervical kyphosis, it has a lower rate of postoperative neurological deterioration, complications, revision surgery, and mortality. We recommend that the surgical treatment of cervical kyphosis should be planned on an individual basis. A multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled study would be necessary to determine the ideal mode of treatment for complex cervical kyphosis.European Spine Journal 10/2010; 20(4):523-36. DOI:10.1007/s00586-010-1602-8 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Goel technique, in which C1-2 intraarticular spacers are used, may be performed to restore stability to a disrupted atlantoaxial complex in conjunction with the Harms technique of placing polyaxial screws and bilateral rods. However, it has yet to be determined biomechanically whether the addition of the C1-2 joint spacers increases the multiaxial rigidity of the fixation construct. The goal of this study was to quantify changes in multiaxial rigidity of the combined Goel-Harms technique with the addition of C1-2 intraarticular spacers. Seven cadaveric cervical spines (occiput-C2) were submitted to nondestructive flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation tests in a material testing machine spine tester. The authors applied 1.5 Nm at a rate of 0.1 Nm/second and held it constant for 10 seconds. The specimens were loaded 3 times, and data were collected on the third cycle. Testing of the specimens was performed for the following groups: 1) intact (I); 2) with the addition of C-1 lateral mass/C-2 pedicle screws and rod system (I+SR); 3) with C1-2 joint capsule incision, decortication (2 mm on top and bottom of each joint [that is, the C-1 and C-2 surface) and addition of bilateral C1-2 intraarticular spacers at C1-2 junction to the screws and rods (I+SR+C); 4) after removal of the posterior rods and only the bilateral spacers in place (I+C); 5) after removal of spacers and further destabilization with simulated odontoidectomy for a completely destabilized case (D); 6) with addition of posterior rods to the destabilized case (D+SR); and 7) with addition of bilateral C1-2 intraarticular spacers at C1-2 junction to the destabilized case (D+SR+C). The motion of C-1 was measured by a 3D motion tracking system and the motion of C-2 was measured by the rotational sensor of the testing system. The range of motion (ROM) and neutral zone (NZ) across C-1 and C-2 were evaluated. For the intact spine test groups, the addition of screws/rods (I+SR) and screws/rods/cages (I+SR+C) significantly reduced ROM and NZ compared with the intact spine (I) for flexion-extension and axial rotation (p < 0.05) but not lateral bending (p > 0.05). The 2 groups were not significantly different from each other in any bending mode for ROM and NZ, but in the destabilized condition the addition of screws/rods (D+SR) and screws/rods/cages (D+SR+C) significantly reduced ROM and NZ compared with the destabilized spine (D) in all bending modes (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the addition of the C1-2 intraarticular spacers (D+SR+C) significantly reduced ROM (flexion-extension and axial rotation) and NZ (lateral bending) compared with the screws and rods alone (D+SR). Study result indicated that both the Goel and Harms techniques alone and with the addition of the C1-2 intraarticular spacers to the Goel-Harms technique are advantageous for stabilizing the atlantoaxial segment. The Goel technique combined with placement of a screw/rod construct appears to result in additional construct rigidity beyond the screw/rod technique and appears to be more useful in very unstable cases.Journal of neurosurgery. Spine 02/2011; 14(5):639-46. DOI:10.3171/2011.1.SPINE10446 · 2.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The lateral transpsoas approach for lumbar interbody fusion is a minimal access technique that has been used by some to treat lumbar degenerative conditions, including degenerative scoliosis. Few studies, however, have analyzed its effect on coronal and sagittal plane correction, and no study has compared changes in segmental, regional, and global coronal and sagittal alignment after this technique. The object of this study was to determine changes in sagittal and coronal plane alignment occurring after direct lateral interbody fusion (DLIF). The authors performed a review of the radiographic records of 36 patients with lumbar degenerative disease treated with the DLIF technique. Thirty-five patients underwent supplemental posterior fixation to maintain correction. Preoperative and postoperative standing anteroposterior and lateral lumbar radiographs were obtained in all patients for measurement of segmental and regional coronal and sagittal Cobb angles. Standing anteroposterior and lateral 36-in radiographs were also obtained in 23 patients for measurement of global coronal (center sacral vertebral line) and sagittal (C-7 plumb line) balance. The mean coronal segmental Cobb angle was 4.5° preoperatively, and it was 1.5° postoperatively (p < 0.0001). The mean pre- and postoperative regional lumbar coronal Cobb angles were 7.6° and 3.6°, respectively (p = 0.0001). In 8 patients with degenerative scoliosis, the mean pre- and postoperative regional lumbar coronal Cobb angles were 21.4° and 9.7°, respectively (p = 0.0004). The mean global coronal alignment was 19.1 mm preoperatively, and it was 12.5 mm postoperatively (p < 0.05). In the sagittal plane, the mean segmental Cobb angle measured -5.3° preoperatively and -8.2° postoperatively (p < 0.0001). The mean pre- and postoperative regional lumbar lordoses were 42.1° and 46.2°, respectively (p > 0.05). The mean global sagittal alignment was 41.5 mm preoperatively and 42.4 mm postoperatively (p = 0.7). The average clinical follow-up was 21 months in 21 patients. The mean pre- and postoperative visual analog scale scores were 7.7 and 2.9, respectively (p < 0.0001). The mean pre- and postoperative Oswestry Disability Indices were 43 and 21, respectively (p < 0.0001). Direct lateral interbody fusion significantly improves segmental, regional, and global coronal plane alignment in patients with degenerative lumbar disease. Although DLIF increases the segmental sagittal Cobb angle at the level of instrumentation, it does not improve regional lumbar lordosis or global sagittal alignment.Journal of neurosurgery. Spine 04/2011; 15(1):92-6. DOI:10.3171/2011.3.SPINE10425 · 2.36 Impact Factor