Automated coregistered imaging using a hand-held probe-based optical imager

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Optical Imaging Laboratory, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33174, USA.
The Review of scientific instruments (Impact Factor: 1.61). 02/2010; 81(2):023702. DOI: 10.1063/1.3271019
Source: PubMed


Near-infrared optical imaging holds a promise as a noninvasive technology toward cancer diagnostics and other tissue imaging applications. In recent years, hand-held based imagers are of great interest toward the clinical translation of the technology. However hand-held imagers developed to date are typically designed to obtain surface images and not tomography information due to lack of coregistration facilities. Herein, a recently developed hand-held probe-based optical imager in our Optical Imaging Laboratory has been implemented with novel coregistration facilities toward real-time and tomographic imaging of tissue phantoms. Continuous-wave fluorescence-enhanced optical imaging studies were performed using an intensified charge coupled device camera based imaging system in order to demonstrate the feasibility of automated coregistered imaging of flat phantom surfaces, using a flexible probe that can also contour to curvatures. Three-dimensional fluorescence tomographic reconstructions were also demonstrated using coregistered frequency-domain measurements obtained using the hand-held based optical imager. It was also observed from preliminary studies on cubical phantoms that multiple coregistered scans differentiated deeper targets (approximately 3 cm) from artifacts that were not feasible from a single coregistered scan, demonstrating the possibility of improved target depth detectability in the future.

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    • "This allows potential early stage tumor diagnosis, especially upon using external fluorescent contrast agents. Currently, work is carried out to register the positional information of the Gen-2 hand-held probe during imaging [30], such that 3D tomographic imaging can also be performed. "
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    • ") using MATLAB/LabVIEW software developed in house [10]. An acoustic tracker is implemented on the probe head to enable real-time tracking of the 3D position and orientation of the probe (in six degrees of freedom) with respect to the phantom surface (Step #1). "
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    • "However , the noise from the background signal dominated the image, and a target was not detected even after subtracting the excitation background signal. On applying our multilocation scanning approach, the targets were differentiable under imperfect uptake conditions (i.e., T:B = 100:1) [11]. In addition to fast 2D imaging, the handheld device described here has demonstrated 3D tomography of fluorescent targets with tissue phantoms using frequency-domain–based measurements to estimate the 3D location and volume of the target within the tissue [9]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging is a noninvasive and nonionizing modality that is emerging as a diagnostic tool for breast cancer. The handheld optical devices developed to date using the NIR technology are predominantly developed for spectroscopic applications. A novel handheld probe-based optical imaging device has been recently developed toward area imaging and tomography applications. The three-dimensional (3D) tomographic imaging capabilities of the device have been demonstrated from previous fluorescence studies on tissue phantoms. In the current work, fluorescence imaging studies are performed on tissue phantoms, in vitro, and in vivo tissue models to demonstrate the fast two-dimensional (2D) surface imaging capabilities of this flexible handheld-based optical imaging device, toward clinical breast imaging studies. Preliminary experiments were performed using target(s) of varying volume (0.23 and 0.45 cm(3)) and depth (1-2 cm), using indocyanine green as the fluorescence contrast agent in liquid phantom, in vitro, and in vivo tissue models. The feasibility of fast 2D surface imaging ( approximately 5 seconds) over large surface areas of 36 cm(2) was demonstrated from various tissue models. The surface images could differentiate the target(s) from the background, allowing a rough estimate of the target's location before extensive 3D tomographic analysis (future studies).
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