Agomelatine in the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder

Department of Psychiatry, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
CNS Drugs (Impact Factor: 5.11). 03/2010; 24(6):479-99. DOI: 10.2165/11534420-000000000-00000
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of an antidepressant drug requires evidence beyond short- and long-term efficacy, including a favourable adverse-effect profile and sustained treatment adherence. Under these conditions, patients should experience enhanced social and functional outcomes. The novel antidepressant agomelatine, a melatonergic MT(1)/MT(2) receptor agonist with serotonin 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist activity, displays antidepressant efficacy with a favourable adverse-effect profile that is associated with good patient adherence. Specifically, agomelatine has demonstrated significant short-term (6-8 weeks) and sustained (6 months) antidepressant efficacy relative to placebo, as well as evidence of relapse prevention (up to 10 months). In head-to-head comparative studies with venlafaxine and sertraline, there was evidence of early (at 1-2 weeks) and sustained (at 6 months) advantages for agomelatine. In addition to evidence of early efficacy, agomelatine also restored disturbed sleep-wake patterns early in treatment. There was no evidence of antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction, weight gain or discontinuation-emergent symptoms. Agomelatine has demonstrated a range of properties that suggest it could offer advantages over current treatments for major depressive disorder, although further comparative trials are still required, as is evidence from real-world clinical practice.

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    • "Moreover, these apparently negative attributes suggest a greater risk of breakthrough depressive symptoms than other antidepressants because of a lack of sustained binding to its neurobiological target, unless multiple daily dosing is applied. Nevertheless, as noted earlier, agomelatine has as yet not been associated with ADS (Chanrion et al., 2008; Aloyo et al., 2009), while 25–50 mg agomelatine once daily is as effective an antidepressant as comparator antidepressants (Kennedy and Rizvi, 2010). Despite the reasons already described earlier validating its low risk for inducing ADS, the latter paradox prompts further discussion on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of agomelatine. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective Antidepressants are at best 50–55% effective. Non-compliance and the antidepressant discontinuation syndrome (ADS) are causally related yet poorly appreciated. While ADS is associated with most antidepressants, agomelatine seems to be devoid of such risk. We review the neurobiology and clinical consequences of antidepressant non-compliance and the ADS. Agomelatine is presented as a counterpoint to learn more on how ADS risk is determined by pharmacokinetics and pharmacology.DesignThe relevant literature is reviewed through a MEDLINE search via PubMed, focusing on agomelatine and clinical and preclinical research on ADS.ResultsAltered serotonergic dysfunction appears central to ADS so that how an antidepressant targets serotonin will determine its relative risk for inducing ADS and thereby affect later treatment outcome. Low ADS risk with agomelatine versus other antidepressants can be ascribed to its unique pharmacokinetic characteristics as well as its distinctive actions on serotonin, including melatonergic, monoaminergic and glutamatergic-nitrergic systems.Conclusions This review raises awareness of the long-term negative aspects of non-compliance and inappropriate antidepressant discontinuation, and suggests possible approaches to “design-out” a risk for ADS. It reveals intuitive and rational ideas for antidepressant drug design, and provides new thoughts on antidepressant pharmacology, ADS risk and how these affect long-term outcome. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Human Psychopharmacology Clinical and Experimental 11/2014; 29(6). DOI:10.1002/hup.2429 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    • "The efficacy of agomelatine has been the subject of a number of clinical trials.15,32–39 In this open-label study of agomelatine monotherapy in patients with moderate to severe major depressive disorder, MADRS scores and CGI-S scores decreased significantly as early as the first week of treatment and this improvement continued over 8 weeks of treatment. "
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    ABSTRACT: Agomelatine is a novel antidepressant agonist to MT1 and MT2 subtypes of melatoninergic receptors (MT1 and MT2) and antagonist to 5-HT2C subtype of serotonergic (5-HT2C) receptors, which has shown antidepressant efficacy in short-term and long-term trials as well as in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to assess the antidepressant efficacy, safety, and the influence of agomelatine on the functioning of patient in common clinical practice. In this open-label, 8-week, multicenter, Phase IV trial, 111 patients with mainly moderate to severe major depressive disorder (39% treatment-naïve) were treated with agomelatine 25-50 mg/day for up to 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was the mean change in total Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Secondary endpoints included assessment of clinical response (defined as a reduction in total MADRS score of ≥50%), and change in Clinical Global Impression scales, Global Assessment of Functioning scale, Sheehan Disability Scale, and CircScreen sleep questionnaire scores. Safety and tolerability were also monitored. Of the 111 patients enrolled, 94 completed the study. The total MADRS score significantly decreased by the first week of treatment and continued to decline significantly until study completion, with an estimated mean change of 3.9 ± 3.9 and 17.2 ± 8.0 at the first and eighth week of the study (last observation carried forward analyses). All other secondary endpoints significantly improved from early treatment evaluation to study completion. A clinical response was observed in 14.1% of patients after the first week, rising to 74.5% of patients at study completion. There were 31 spontaneously reported adverse events in 17 patients, and most were mild to moderate in severity. This study showed good short-term efficacy for agomelatine in outpatients with major depressive episodes. Treatment with agomelatine achieved early and consistent responses for symptoms of depression and other dimensions of clinical and functional status. Agomelatine achieved significant improvements in daily functioning of patients, and had good tolerability. Clinically, no hepatic events were observed.
    Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 10/2013; 9:1595-604. DOI:10.2147/NDT.S49062 · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    • "A recently published review aiming to evaluate the safety and efficacy of agomelatine for the treatment of depression, showed that agomelatine was safe and its overall tolerability profile was superior to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or selective serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) [12]. Moreover, a meta-analysis aiming to evaluate the efficacy of agomelatine in MDD revealed that agomelatine was superior to placebo and a number of selected anti-depressants [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Major depressive disorder (MDD) constitutes an important public health problem, as it is highly prevalent in the industrialized world and it is associated with substantial economic consequences for patients, health care providers, insurance and social security organizations and employers. To conduct an economic evaluation comparing agomelatine with other commonly used alternatives for treating patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) in Greece. Methods An existing international Markov model designed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of agomelatine was adapted to the Greek setting. It reflects six different health states, in which patients may move on a monthly basis. The analysis was undertaken from a societal perspective. Transition probabilities, utilities and costs assigned to each health state were extracted from the published literature, government sources and expert opinion. Data reflects the year 2012 and was discounted using a rate of 3.5%. Probabilistic analysis was undertaken to deal with uncertainty. Results Base case analyses revealed that agomelatine is a dominant therapy for MDD relative to escitalopram, fluoxetine and sertraline, and it appeared to be cost-effective compared to venlafaxine (ICER: €547/QALY). Agomelatine remained a dominant treatment against generic sertraline and fluoxetine, and it appeared to be a cost-effective alternative compared to generic venlafaxine and escitalopram (ICER: €1,446/QALY and €3,303/QALY, respectively). Excluding the indirect cost from the analysis, agomelatine remained a cost-effective alternative over all comparators. In the probabilistic sensitivity analysis agomelatine was dominant in 44.5%, 89.6%, 70.6% and 84.6% of simulated samples against branded venlafaxine, escitalopram, fluoxetine and sertraline, respectively. Conclusion The present evaluation indicates that agomelatine is either a dominant or a cost-effective alternative relative to branded or generic alternatives, in Greece.
    BMC Health Services Research 05/2013; 13(1):173. DOI:10.1186/1472-6963-13-173 · 1.71 Impact Factor
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