40 Gb/s fast-locking all-optical packet clock recovery
ABSTRACT We demonstrate instantaneous 40 Gbit/s clock extraction from 1 ns long data packets separated by 750 ps. The circuit comprises a Fabry-Perot filter and an all-optical power limiting gate and requires very short inter-packet guardbands.
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ABSTRACT: A novel all-optical timing-recovery scheme that uses an optical tank circuit is presented. An optical clock synchronized to an incoming data stream is generated by extracting line spectral components in the incoming data stream using an optical resonator whose free spectral range is equal to the incoming data bit rate. The principle of operation is demonstrated using a confocal Fabry-Perot-type optical tank circuit and a fiber-ring-type optical tank circuit at 2 Gb/s and 324 Mb/s, respectively. Quality factor in the baseband domain is measured and shown to agree well with the theoretical value. A workable data bit rate, required source linewidth, and stability are discussedIEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics 05/1992; · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Clock recovery (CR) from a 160-Gb/s data signal is demonstrated using a single unidirectional electroabsorption modulator in a cost-effective phase-locked loop configuration consisting entirely of commercially available components. The CR exhibits a root mean square time jitter of 205 fs, a holding range of 10 MHz, a wavelength-independent performance of 10 nm, and an input dynamic range of 10 dB. Demultiplexing experiments of transmitted 160-Gb/s data through installed fiber links over 275.4 km verified the excellent performance of the proposed CR. All 16 10-Gb/s channels were demultiplexed error-free.IEEE Photonics Technology Letters 07/2004; · 2.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Time-resolved interferometry is used to measure the relaxation of an optically induced phase change in a semiconductor laser amplifier (SLA). A phase change of π recovers in ~12.5 ps. This is proof-of-principle that an interferometric switch using an SLA can be gated at ~80 GHzElectronics Letters 03/1995; · 0.96 Impact Factor
40 Gb/s Fast-Locking All-Optical Packet Clock Recovery
L. Stampoulidis, E. Kehayas, H. Avramopoulos
National Technical University of Athens – Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science
9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Zografou 15773 –Athens, Greece
Tel. +30-10-7722057, Fax +30-10-7722077, Email: email@example.com
Y. Liu, E. Tangdiongga and H. J. S. Dorren
COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands
Abstract: We demonstrate instantaneous 40 Gb/s clock extraction from 1 ns long data packets
separated by 750 ps. The circuit comprises a Fabry-Perot filter and an all-optical power limiting
gate and requires very short inter-packet guardbands.
©2005 Optical Society of America
OCIS codes: (060.2330) Fiber optics communications; (230.1150) All-optical devices; (250.5980) Semiconductor Optical
Amplifiers; (050.2230) Fabry-Perot
1. Introduction and Concept
In order to satisfy the increasing demands for higher speed and more efficient bandwidth utilization, optical packet-
switched network nodes should be designed to support transmission of closely-spaced short packet traffic at line
rates beyond the currently available by electronic circuits. In this context, the subsystems that are destined to deal
with the 3R regeneration, error-free reception and subsequent optical signal processing of the data within the node
should be able to handle short data packets with minimum arrival time delays at line rates reaching 40 Gb/s. This,
however, poses stringent requirements on all-optical node synchronization and local optical clock signal generation,
requiring clock extraction on a per-packet basis without increasing bandwidth overheads. In this rationale, the
performance metrics of such a packet clock recovery circuit is the clock acquisition time and clock persistence time.
Ideally, to achieve maximum bandwidth utilization, a packet clock should be generated instantaneously and persist
only for the duration of the incoming data packet.
So far, several all-optical clock recovery techniques suitable for packet-mode operation at 40 Gb/s have been
proposed, including synchronized mode-locked ring-lasers , electronic phase locked loops  and self-pulsating
DFBs . Ring-lasers and phase locked loops require a large time interval for synchronization to the data streams
and are most suitable for traffic in the form of large aggregated packets. Self-pulsating DFBs require significantly
less overhead for clock acquisition and can operate successfully with data packets comprising of a few thousands of
bits and guard bands of a few hundreds of bits.
In this communication we demonstrate a packet clock recovery circuit able to achieve instantaneous locking on
40-bit long packets at 40Gb/s requiring 2 preamble bits for clock synchronization. In addition the circuit exhibits a
self-resetting time of only 16 bits drastically reducing the guardband overhead between packets. The configuration
comprises a low-Q Fabry-Perot Filter (FPF)  tuned at the line-rate that due to its short impulse response allows
for packet-to-packet processing. Exploiting the filter memory effects, the ‘0’s of the incoming data stream are
partially filled with preceding ‘1’s creating a signal that resembles a packet clock but is amplitude modulated. A
deeply saturated semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) interferometric gate is then incorporated in order to remove
the amplitude modulation by taking advantage of its thresholding function. The proposed circuit is self-
synchronizing, data-format insensitive  and requires no high-speed electronics, whereas the lock-in time and the
required intra-packet guardbands are limited to a small number of bits. Since these guardbands are packet length
and bit rate independent and given that optical gates can operate beyond 100 Gb/s , the circuit has great potential
for use in future high-speed and optically transparent OPS networks with enhanced transmission efficiency and
2. Experimental Setup
The experimental setup is depicted in Figure 1 and consists of the optical packet generator and the clock recovery
circuit. An actively mode-locked fiber ring-laser (MD-FRL) provided a 9.872 Gb/s pulse train consisting of 1.6 ps
pulses at 1555 nm. This pulse-train was modulated to form a 27-1 PRBS signal using a PRBS generator and a
Ti:LiNbO3 modulator (MOD1) and was time-multiplexed in a polarization maintaining (PM) bit interleaver to
generate a 39.488 Gb/s pseudo-data stream. Data packets of adjustable length and period were formed using a
Fig. 1. Experimental setup.
second Ti:LiNbO3 modulator (MOD2) driven by a programmable PRBS generator. The resulting packet stream was
then launched into the packet clock recovery circuit, consisting of a low-Q FPF and a SOA-based UNI gate,
powered by a CW signal at 1550 nm (LD2). The FPF played the role of the passive optical resonator that helps
extracting the line rate spectral component and due to its short exponentially decaying impulse response the data
packets are transformed into clock packets with intense amplitude modulation and duration similar to the
corresponding data packets. The output of the filter was amplified and inserted into the UNI gate as the control
signal. To help the fast recovery of the SOA, the UNI gate was optimized for operation at 40 Gb/s, using PM fiber
that induces only 5 ps of birefringent delay in the two orthogonal polarization components of the CW signal at the
input and output ports of the gate. The CW signal plays the role of an optical holding beam, further reducing the
recovery time of the SOA , while its power was adjusted to deeply saturate the SOA and bias the interferometer
in the saturated regime. The saturation of the nonlinear gate by the CW light injection, yields a power-limiting
power transfer function , providing the intensity modulation reduction that is necessary for generating a packet-
level clock signal. Finally, the self-extracted clock packets were amplified in an EDFA and fed into a Dispersion
Decreasing Fiber (DDF)-based pulse compressor used at the output of the UNI gate. The FPF used was a bulk,
micrometer-adjustable fused quartz substrate with free spectral range (FSR) equal to the line rate and finesse equal
to 50. The active element in the optical gate was a 1.5 mm bulk InGaAsP/InP ridge waveguide SOA with 27 dB
small signal gain at 1550 nm and a recovery time of 80 ps, when driven with 700 mA (OPTOSPEED S.A.).
3. Results and Discussion
Data packets of different length, period and content were used to evaluate the performance of the clock recovery
circuit at 40 Gb/s. Fig. 2(a) shows a sequence of four, 40-bit long packets separated by 750 ps. Entering the FPF,
the packet stream is convolved with the exponentially decaying response function of the filter, so that deeply
amplitude modulated, but nevertheless clock resembling packets are obtained as shown in Fig. 2(b).
Fig. 2. (a), (b), (c) Input data packets, FPF output and recovered clock packets (time base 500 ps/div, vertical scale 335
µW/div) and (d), (e), (f) Single packet, FPF output and recovered clock (time base 200 ps/div, vertical scale 335 µW/div)
Introduction of this signal as control signal into the saturated UNI gate results in the generation of clock packets
with very short rise and fall times as depicted in Figure 2(c). Figures 2 (d), (e) and (f) provide a more detailed view
of a single packet, its form after passing through the FPF and its transformation to an amplitude equalized packet
clock signal. More specifically Figure 2 (f) reveals that the clock is captured from the first bit and exhibits a fall
time of 16 bits, whereas the amplitude modulation (highest to lowest pulse ratio) within the 40 clock pulses is below
1 dB. The sharp rise time is a result of the heavy saturation of the SOA and determines the lock acquisition time of
the circuit, whereas the fall time is due to the lifetime of the filter and determines the minimum intra-packet
guardbands. Successful operation of the circuit was achieved by injecting 1 mW of optical power from the CW
signal and 80 fJ/pulse from the data signal.
The timing jitter performance of the circuit was investigated using a continuous PRBS signal at 40 Gb/s with the
precision time base option of an Agilent/HP 86100A Infinium digital sampling oscilloscope. Figure 3 (a) and (b)
show the eye diagrams obtained for the input signal and recovered clock respectively. The rms timing jitter for the
input signal was measured to be 450 fs and 580 fs for the recovered clock. The slight increase in rms jitter measured
was due to the difficulty of precisely aligning the bulk FPF used, resulting in small line-rate detuning. This effect
can be eliminated by using a fiber-based FPF. The circuit was also sensitive to phase variations caused by the
susceptibility of mode-locked fiber ring lasers to environmental changes. The autocorrelation trace obtained at the
output of the circuit is provided in Figure 3 (c) to examine the pulse shape and temporal width of the optical clock
pulses. The pulses have a temporal FWHM of 4 ps, whereas their hyperbolic secant profile can be verified by the
ideal sech fit provided.
Fig. 3. (a), (b) Eye diagrams (100ps/div, 500 µW/div) of input data and extracted clock and (c) Autocorellation trace and sech fit of clock pulses.
We have presented all-optical clock recovery from short, 40 Gb/s data packets using a clock recovery circuit
consisting of a low-Q FPF and a deeply saturated UNI gate. This scheme is based on simple optical filtering and
switching elements, requires no high-speed electronics and provides improved bandwidth efficiency, since it
instantly acquires synchronization on packets separated by short, sub-nanosecond inter-packet gaps.
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This work has been supported by the European Commission through projects IST-LASAGNE (FP6-507509) and