Oral adsorbent AST-120 ameliorates tubular injury in chronic renal failure patients by reducing proteinuria and oxidative stress generation.
ABSTRACT AST-120 is an oral adsorbent that attenuates the progression of chronic renal failure (CRF) and improves the prognosis of the patients under dialysis. Although tubulointerstitial injury is more important than glomerulopathy in terms of renal prognosis in patients with CRF, effect of AST-120 on tubular injury in CRF patients remains unknown. In this study, we examined whether and how AST-120 treatment could improve tubular damage in nondiabetic CRF patients. Fifty nondiabetic CRF patients were enrolled in the present study and divided into 2 groups: one was the AST-120-treated group (15 men and 10 women) and the other was the age-, sex-, and clinical variables-matched non-AST-120-treated control group. Patients were followed up for 12 months. We investigated the effects of AST-120 on serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), proteinuria, and urinary excretion levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and L-fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), markers of oxidative stress and tubular injury, respectively. AST-120 treatment (6 g/d), but not control treatment, for 12 months significantly reduced IL-6, proteinuria, and urinary excretion levels of L-FABP and 8-OHdG, and inhibited the increase in serum creatinine in CRF patients. In univariate analyses, L-FABP levels were correlated with age, proteinuria, 8-OHdG, and IL-6. In multiple stepwise regression analysis, proteinuria and urinary 8-OHdG levels were independently related to L-FABP levels (R² = 0.605). Our present study demonstrated for the first time that AST-120 improved tubular injury in nondiabetic CRF patients. AST-120 may exert beneficial effects in CRF patients by protecting tubular damage partly via reduction of proteinuria and oxidative stress generation.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Protein-bound uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate cannot be removed efficiently by hemodialysis. These protein-bound uremic toxins have emerged as important risk factors for the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) as well as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Areas covered: Indoxyl sulfate shows toxic effects on a variety of cells such as renal proximal tubular cells, glomerular mesangial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, vascular endothelial cells, cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibroblasts, monocytes, osteoblasts and osteoclasts. This review overviews the cellular toxicity of indoxyl sulfate, its molecular mechanism and its role in the progression of CKD and CVD. Further, this review summarizes the clinical effects of AST-120 and the other strategies to reduce serum levels of indoxyl sulfate. Expert opinion: Protein-bound uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate have emerged as target molecules for therapeutic intervention of not only CKD but also CVD. An oral sorbent AST-120 reduces serum level of indoxyl sulfate by adsorbing indole in the intestine. The modulation of intestinal bacteria by prebiotics/probiotics might be effective in reducing the production of indole in the intestine followed by reduced serum levels of indoxyl sulfate. An alternative approach might be antagonist which can counteract indoxyl sulfate-induced cellular effects and signaling pathways.Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets 08/2013; · 4.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: p-Cresyl sulphate (p-CS) and p-cresyl glucuronide (p-CG) are uraemic toxins that exhibit pro-inflammatory features in leukocytes and are associated with the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Tubular cells are key targets of nephrotoxic agents and tubular cell death and activation contribute to the progression of CKD. However, the potential toxicity of these compounds on tubular cells is not fully understood. More specifically, apoptosis has never been studied. HK-2 human proximal tubular epithelial cells were studied. Cell death was evaluated by flow cytometry of DNA content and by morphology. Gene expression was studied by real-time (RT)-PCR. Protein expression was studied by western blot and flow cytometry. Long-term (7 days) exposure to p-CS induced apoptosis in HK-2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, short-term (3 h) exposure to p-CS promoted the expression of the TWEAK receptor Fn14, cooperated with TWEAK in promoting cell death and increased inflammatory gene expression. Albumin was cytotoxic and increased the inflammatory response to p-CS concentrations found in the circulation of non-dialysis CKD patients. In contrast, no biological actions of p-CG were observed on HK-2 cells, either alone or in combination with p-CS. This study demonstrates for the first time that p-CS has pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory effects on tubular cells. These results identify mechanisms by which uraemic toxicity may contribute to CKD progression.Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 10/2013; · 3.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Uremic toxins such as indoxyl sulfate contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease (CKD) by promoting glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis with loss of nephrons and vascular damage. AST-120, an orally administered intestinal sorbent, adsorbs indole, a precursor of indoxyl sulfate, thereby reducing serum and urinary concentrations of indoxyl sulfate. AST-120 has been available in Japan since 1991, and subsequently Korea (2005), and the Philippines (2010) as an agent to prolong the time to initiation of hemodialysis and for improvement of uremic symptoms in patients with CKD. A Medline search was performed to identify data supporting clinical experience with AST-120 for managing CKD. Prospective open-label and double-blind trials as well as retrospective analyses were included. In prospective trials and retrospective analyses, AST-120 has been shown to prolong the time to initiation of hemodialysis, and slow decline in glomerular filtration rate and the increase serum creatinine. In an initial randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in the United States, AST-120 was associated with a significant dose-dependent reduction in serum indoxyl sulfate levels and a decrease in uremia-related malaise. The Evaluating Prevention of Progression in CKD (EPPIC) trials, two double-blind, placebo-controlled trials undertaken in North America/Latin America and Europe, are evaluating the efficacy of AST-120 for preventing the progression of CKD. The results of the EPPIC trials will further define the role of AST-120 in this debilitating condition.International Journal of Nephrology and Renovascular Disease 01/2014; 7:49-56.