Oral adsorbent AST-120 ameliorates tubular injury in chronic renal failure patients by reducing proteinuria and oxidative stress generation.
ABSTRACT AST-120 is an oral adsorbent that attenuates the progression of chronic renal failure (CRF) and improves the prognosis of the patients under dialysis. Although tubulointerstitial injury is more important than glomerulopathy in terms of renal prognosis in patients with CRF, effect of AST-120 on tubular injury in CRF patients remains unknown. In this study, we examined whether and how AST-120 treatment could improve tubular damage in nondiabetic CRF patients. Fifty nondiabetic CRF patients were enrolled in the present study and divided into 2 groups: one was the AST-120-treated group (15 men and 10 women) and the other was the age-, sex-, and clinical variables-matched non-AST-120-treated control group. Patients were followed up for 12 months. We investigated the effects of AST-120 on serum levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), proteinuria, and urinary excretion levels of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and L-fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), markers of oxidative stress and tubular injury, respectively. AST-120 treatment (6 g/d), but not control treatment, for 12 months significantly reduced IL-6, proteinuria, and urinary excretion levels of L-FABP and 8-OHdG, and inhibited the increase in serum creatinine in CRF patients. In univariate analyses, L-FABP levels were correlated with age, proteinuria, 8-OHdG, and IL-6. In multiple stepwise regression analysis, proteinuria and urinary 8-OHdG levels were independently related to L-FABP levels (R² = 0.605). Our present study demonstrated for the first time that AST-120 improved tubular injury in nondiabetic CRF patients. AST-120 may exert beneficial effects in CRF patients by protecting tubular damage partly via reduction of proteinuria and oxidative stress generation.
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ABSTRACT: Reduced GFR in patients with CKD causes systemic accumulation of uremic toxins, which has been correlated with disease progression and increased morbidity. The orally administered spherical carbon adsorbent AST-120 reduces systemic toxin absorption through gastrointestinal sequestration, which may slow disease progression in these patients. The multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Evaluating Prevention of Progression in CKD (EPPIC)-1 and EPPIC-2 trials evaluated the effects of AST-120 on the progression of CKD when added to standard therapy. We randomly assigned 2035 adults with moderate to severe disease (serum creatinine at screening, 2.0-5.0 mg/dl for men and 1.5-5.0 mg/dl for women) to receive either placebo or AST-120 (9 g/d). The primary end point was a composite of dialysis initiation, kidney transplantation, and serum creatinine doubling. Each trial continued until accrual of 291 primary end points. The time to primary end point was similar between the AST-120 and the placebo groups in both trials (EPPIC-1: hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 0.84 to 1.27; P=0.78) (EPPIC-2: hazard ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.74 to 1.12; P=0.37); a pooled analysis of both trials showed similar results. The estimated median time to primary end points for the placebo groups was 124 weeks for power calculations, but actual times were 189.0 and 170.3 weeks for EPPIC-1 and EPPIC-2, respectively. Thus, disease progression was more gradual than expected in the trial populations. In conclusion, the benefit of adding AST-120 to standard therapy in patients with moderate to severe CKD is not supported by these data.Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 10/2014; DOI:10.1681/ASN.2014010042 · 9.47 Impact Factor
04/2014; 3(2):71-76. DOI:10.1016/j.bcdf.2014.01.005
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