Research on job satisfaction and turnover using latent class analysis (LCA) has been conducted in other disciplines. LCA has seldom been applied to social pharmacy research and may be especially useful for examining job situation constructs in pharmacy organizations.
The objective of the study was to determine the probability of turnover among practicing pharmacists using LCA.
Using a cross-sectional descriptive design, 2400 randomly selected pharmacists with active licenses in Florida were surveyed. A model was created using LCA, then fit indices were used to determine whether underlying "job satisfaction clusters" were present. Once identified, these clusters along with the covariate practice site were modeled on a distal outcome turnover.
A 5-class model appeared to best fit the data: a "pseudo-satisfied" class that contained 8% of the sample, a "career-goal" class that contained 11% of the sample, a "satisfied class" that contained 44% of the sample, a "job-expectation" class that contained 3% of the sample, and an "unsatisfied class" that contained 17% of the sample. In terms of predicting the distal outcome "turnover," the calculated odds ratios indicate that compared with class 3 or the satisfied group, class 2 was 14 times more likely, class 4 was 17 times more likely, and class 5 was 26 times more likely to state that they do not intend to be employed with their current employer 1 year from now.
The LCA method was found to be effective for finding relevant subgroups with a heterogeneous at-risk population for turnover. Results from the analysis indicate that job satisfaction may be parsed into smaller, more interpretable and useful subgroups. This result holds great promise for practitioners and researchers, alike.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES To quantify and model drivers of community pharmacists' self-reported levels of occupational satisfaction and stress and to identify key segments for possible intervention by the profession. DESIGN Descriptive nonexperimental study. SETTING United States during January to February 2012. PARTICIPANTS 303 independent and community chain pharmacists. INTERVENTION Online survey instrument of previously validated occupational stress and satisfaction attribute batteries. RESULTS Participants reported a high level of dissatisfaction with current employment, with more than 50% stating that they were considering quitting their jobs. Dissatisfaction was higher among those with a doctor of pharmacy degree and those employed in community chains. Occupational stress and satisfaction were highly correlated with the intention to search for a new position. Approximately 20% of respondents felt that stress from their employment adversely affected their mental health and well-being, physical health, quality of the work, or relationships with family and friends. CONCLUSION Substantive levels of occupational dissatisfaction and stress exist among pharmacists currently in community practice. These negative attributes are associated with a damaging promotion of community practice-a marker of a negative trajectory in sustaining this practice environment. The results of this study have implications for the health care industry, commercial pharmacy vendors, independent pharmacies, the profession, and academic training institutions as they prepare the pharmacy workforce of the future for potentially dissatisfying and stressful work environments.
Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 05/2013; 53(3):282-296. DOI:10.1331/JAPhA.2013.12158 · 1.24 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Workload has been described both objectively (e.g., number of prescriptions dispensed per pharmacist) as well as subjectively (e.g., pharmacist's perception of busyness). These approaches might be missing important characteristics of pharmacist workload that have not been previously identified and measured.
To measure the association of community pharmacists' workload perceptions at three levels (organization, job, and task) with job satisfaction, burnout, and perceived performance of two tasks in the medication dispensing process.
A secondary data analysis was performed using cross-sectional survey data collected from Wisconsin (US) community pharmacists. Organization-related workload was measured as staffing adequacy; job-related workload was measured as general and specific job demands; task-related workload was measured as internal and external mental demands. Pharmacists' perceived task performance was assessed for patient profile review and patient consultation. The survey was administered to a random sample of 500 pharmacists who were asked to opt in if they were a community pharmacist. Descriptive statistics and correlations of study variables were determined. Two structural equation models were estimated to examine relationships between the study variables and perceived task performance.
From the 224 eligible community pharmacists that agreed to participate, 165 (73.7%) usable surveys were completed and returned. Job satisfaction and job-related monitoring demands had direct positive associations with both dispensing tasks. External task demands were negatively related to perceived patient consultation performance. Indirect effects on both tasks were primarily mediated through job satisfaction, which was positively related to staffing adequacy and cognitive job demands and negatively related to volume job demands. External task demands had an additional indirect effect on perceived patient consultation performance, as it was associated with lower levels of job satisfaction and higher levels of burnout.
Allowing community pharmacists to concentrate on tasks and limiting interruptions while performing these tasks are important factors in improving quality of patient care and pharmacist work life. The results have implications for strategies to improve patient safety and pharmacist performance.
Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy 06/2013; 10(2). DOI:10.1016/j.sapharm.2013.05.007 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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