A latent class analysis of job satisfaction and turnover among practicing pharmacists.
ABSTRACT Research on job satisfaction and turnover using latent class analysis (LCA) has been conducted in other disciplines. LCA has seldom been applied to social pharmacy research and may be especially useful for examining job situation constructs in pharmacy organizations.
The objective of the study was to determine the probability of turnover among practicing pharmacists using LCA.
Using a cross-sectional descriptive design, 2400 randomly selected pharmacists with active licenses in Florida were surveyed. A model was created using LCA, then fit indices were used to determine whether underlying "job satisfaction clusters" were present. Once identified, these clusters along with the covariate practice site were modeled on a distal outcome turnover.
A 5-class model appeared to best fit the data: a "pseudo-satisfied" class that contained 8% of the sample, a "career-goal" class that contained 11% of the sample, a "satisfied class" that contained 44% of the sample, a "job-expectation" class that contained 3% of the sample, and an "unsatisfied class" that contained 17% of the sample. In terms of predicting the distal outcome "turnover," the calculated odds ratios indicate that compared with class 3 or the satisfied group, class 2 was 14 times more likely, class 4 was 17 times more likely, and class 5 was 26 times more likely to state that they do not intend to be employed with their current employer 1 year from now.
The LCA method was found to be effective for finding relevant subgroups with a heterogeneous at-risk population for turnover. Results from the analysis indicate that job satisfaction may be parsed into smaller, more interpretable and useful subgroups. This result holds great promise for practitioners and researchers, alike.
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Article: Applied Latent Class Analysis
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ABSTRACT: To describe pharmacists' work activities in the United States during 2004 in terms of (1) the desired amount of time they would like to spend in each of four work activities (medication dispensing, consultation, business management, drug use management), (2) the amount of time they actually spend in each activity, and (3) the gaps between desired and actual time reported in each activity. Cross-sectional study. Pharmacies (community chain, community independent, hospital, and other) in the United States. 1,564 actively practicing pharmacists. Mailed survey from portions of the 2004 National Pharmacist Workforce Survey. Differences between desired and actual time spent in work activities in medication dispensing, consultation, business management, and drug use management and the associations between practice setting characteristics and demographic variables were explored using linear and logistic regression analyses. Practice variables included position, years in current position, working part time, work with other pharmacists, work with technicians, proportion of staff who are pharmacists, staff size, dispensing level. Demographic variables included age, gender, race, marital status, and year of licensure with respondents' reported work activity amounts and gaps. Linear regression results were interpreted based on standardized beta coefficients and corresponding P values. Logistic regression results were interpreted based on 95% confidence intervals for odds ratios. The proportion of time pharmacists devoted to medication dispensing, consultation, business management, and drug use management did not change between 2000 and 2004. Practice setting was the most consistently influential variable on pharmacists' work activities when controlling for other variables. Pharmacists in all practice settings would like to spend more time in consultation and drug use management and less time in medication dispensing, but compared with community pharmacists, hospital and other patient care pharmacists were less likely to report a gap between desired and actual time spent in dispensing activities. Age was a significant predictor of gaps between desired and actual time spent in various activities, but only the oldest age groups (ages of 60 or 70 years and older) were significantly different from the reference group of pharmacists aged 23 to 30 years. Pharmacists would like to devote more of their time to consultation and drug use management activities in community pharmacy settings but have not yet been afforded a full opportunity to engage in these activities to the extent that they desire.Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA 01/2006; 46(3):340-7. · 1.16 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The General Health Questionnaire is widely used to measure the health status of individuals. Most studies have focused on traditional score values for one or more dimensions of psychopathology. We introduce a new analysis model that is person-centred and uses a latent structure approach to group individuals by a discrete latent variable. Data were drawn from a midlife (age 53) follow up of a national birth cohort study (n = 3035). For both men and women, three groups (latent classes) were sufficient to summarise individuals’ reports of recent changes in social functioning. The groups differed in the number and nature of the reported changes. Furthermore, they were shown to differ in terms of: (1) reported general health, (2) in mean scores on the conventional GHQ factors and (3) in several other variables external to the GHQ (happiness in job, ability to express feelings and self-confidence). Latent Class Analysis of positively worded GHQ items defined groups who differ in perceptions of recent positive changes in social functioning. These groups extend the value of individual health profiles afforded by the GHQ by using distinctions between categories in the first and second responses that are usually combined.Personality and Individual Differences 01/2007; 42(2):305-316. · 1.88 Impact Factor