Whole genome analysis of p38 SAPK-mediated gene expression upon stress.

Cell Signaling Unit, Universitat Pompeu Fabra (UPF) Dr aiguader 88, Barcelona 08003, Spain.
BMC Genomics (Impact Factor: 4.4). 03/2010; 11:144. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-11-144
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Cells have the ability to respond and adapt to environmental changes through activation of stress-activated protein kinases (SAPKs). Although p38 SAPK signalling is known to participate in the regulation of gene expression little is known on the molecular mechanisms used by this SAPK to regulate stress-responsive genes and the overall set of genes regulated by p38 in response to different stimuli.
Here, we report a whole genome expression analyses on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) treated with three different p38 SAPK activating-stimuli, namely osmostress, the cytokine TNFalpha and the protein synthesis inhibitor anisomycin. We have found that the activation kinetics of p38alpha SAPK in response to these insults is different and also leads to a complex gene pattern response specific for a given stress with a restricted set of overlapping genes. In addition, we have analysed the contribution of p38alpha the major p38 family member present in MEFs, to the overall stress-induced transcriptional response by using both a chemical inhibitor (SB203580) and p38alpha deficient (p38alpha-/-) MEFs. We show here that p38 SAPK dependency ranged between 60% and 88% depending on the treatments and that there is a very good overlap between the inhibitor treatment and the ko cells. Furthermore, we have found that the dependency of SAPK varies depending on the time the cells are subjected to osmostress.
Our genome-wide transcriptional analyses shows a selective response to specific stimuli and a restricted common response of up to 20% of the stress up-regulated early genes that involves an important set of transcription factors, which might be critical for either cell adaptation or preparation for continuous extra-cellular changes. Interestingly, up to 85% of the up-regulated genes are under the transcriptional control of p38 SAPK. Thus, activation of p38 SAPK is critical to elicit the early gene expression program required for cell adaptation to stress.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Eosinophils function contributes to human allergic and autoimmune diseases, many of which currently lack curative treatment. Development of more effective treatments for eosinophil-related diseases requires expanded understanding of eosinophil signaling and biology. Cell signaling requires integration of extracellular signals with intracellular responses, and is organized in part by cholesterol rich membrane microdomains (CRMMs), commonly referred to as lipid rafts. Formation of these organizational membrane domains is in turn dependent upon the amount of available cholesterol, which can fluctuate widely with a variety of disease states. We tested the hypothesis that manipulating membrane cholesterol content in primary human peripheral blood eosinophils (PBEos) would selectively alter signaling pathways that depend upon membrane-anchored signaling proteins localized within CRMMs (e.g., mitogen activated protein kinase [MAPK] pathway), while not affecting pathways that signal through soluble proteins, like the Janus Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription [JAK/STAT] pathway. Cholesterol levels were increased or decreased utilizing cholesterol-chelating methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), which can either extract membrane cholesterol or add exogenous membrane cholesterol depending on whether MβCD is preloaded with cholesterol. Human PBEos were pretreated with MβCD (cholesterol removal) or MβCD+Cholesterol (MβCD+Chol; cholesterol delivery); subsequent IL-5-stimulated signaling and physiological endpoints were assessed. MβCD reduced membrane cholesterol in PBEos, and attenuated an IL-5-stimulated p38 and extracellular-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation (p-p38, p-ERK1/2), and an IL-5-dependent increase in interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mRNA levels. In contrast, MβCD+Chol treatment elevated PBEos membrane cholesterol levels and basal p-p38, but did not alter IL-5-stimulated phosphorylation of ERK1/2, STAT5, or STAT3. Furthermore, MβCD+Chol pretreatment attenuated an IL-5-induced increase in cell survival at 48 hours, measured as total cellular metabolism. The reduction in cell survival following cholesterol addition despite unaltered STAT phosphorylation contradicts the current dogma in which JAK/STAT activation is sufficient to promote eosinophil survival, and suggests an additional, unidentified mechanism critically regulates IL-5-mediated human PBEos survival.
    PLoS ONE 08/2014; 9(8):e103122. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The kinase Mnk2 is a substrate of the MAPK pathway and phosphorylates the translation initiation factor eIF4E. In humans, MKNK2, the gene encoding for Mnk2, is alternatively spliced yielding two splicing isoforms with differing last exons: Mnk2a, which contains a MAPK-binding domain, and Mnk2b, which lacks it. We found that the Mnk2a isoform is downregulated in breast, lung, and colon tumors and is tumor suppressive. Mnk2a directly interacts with, phosphorylates, activates, and translocates p38α-MAPK into the nucleus, leading to activation of its target genes, increasing cell death and suppression of Ras-induced transformation. Alternatively, Mnk2b is pro-oncogenic and does not activate p38-MAPK, while still enhancing eIF4E phosphorylation. We further show that Mnk2a colocalization with p38α-MAPK in the nucleus is both required and sufficient for its tumor-suppressive activity. Thus, Mnk2a downregulation by alternative splicing is a tumor suppressor mechanism that is lost in some breast, lung, and colon tumors.
    Cell Reports 04/2014; · 7.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Toxoplasma gondii is the most widespread apicomplexan parasite and occupies a large spectrum of niches by infecting virtually any warm-blooded animals. As an obligate intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma has evolved a repertoire of strategies to fine-tune the cellular environment in an optimal way to promote growth and persistence in host tissues hence increasing the chance to be transmitted to new hosts. Short and long-term intracellular survival is associated with Toxoplasma ability to both evade the host deleterious immune defenses and to stimulate a beneficial immune balance by governing host cell gene expression. It is only recently that parasite proteins responsible for driving these transcriptional changes have been identified. While proteins contained in the apical secretory Rhoptry organelle have already been identified as bona fide secreted effectors that divert host signaling pathways, recent findings revealed that dense granule proteins should be added to the growing list of effectors as they reach the host cell cytoplasm and nucleus and target various host cell pathways in the course of cell infection. Herein, we emphasize on a novel subfamily of dense granule resident proteins, exemplified with the GRA16 and GRA24 members we recently discovered as both are exported beyond the vacuole-containing parasites and reach the host cell nucleus to reshape the host genome expression.
    Cellular Microbiology 12/2013; · 4.81 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Jun 2, 2014