Interventions for atopic dermatitis in dogs: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
ABSTRACT The objective of this systematic review, which was performed following the guidelines of the Cochrane collaboration, was to assess the effects of interventions for treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) in dogs. Citations identified from three databases (MEDLINE, Thomson's Science Citation Index Expanded and CAB Abstracts) and trials published by December 2007 were selected. Proceedings books from the major veterinary dermatology international congresses were hand searched for relevant citations. The authors selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs), published from January 1980 to December 2007, which reported the efficacy of topical or systemic interventions for treatment or prevention of canine AD. Studies had to report assessments of either pruritus or skin lesions, or both. Studies were selected and data extracted by two reviewers, with discrepancies resolved by a third arbitrator. Missing data were requested from study authors of recently published trials. Pooling of results and meta-analyses were performed for studies reporting similar interventions and outcome measures. A total of 49 RCTs were selected, which had enrolled 2126 dogs. This review found some evidence of efficacy of topical tacrolimus (3 RCTs), topical triamcinolone (1), oral glucocorticoids (5), oral ciclosporin (6), subcutaneous recombinant gamma-interferon (1) and subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy (3) to decrease pruritus and/or skin lesions of AD in dogs. One high-quality RCT showed that an oral essential fatty acid supplement could reduce prednisolone consumption by approximately half. Additional RCTs of high design quality must be performed to remedy previous flaws and to test interventions for prevention of flares of this disease.
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ABSTRACT: This is the first in a series of four articlesThe quality of controlled trials is of obvious relevance to systematic reviews. If the “raw material” is flawed then the conclusions of systematic reviews cannot be trusted. Many reviewers formally assess the quality of primary trials by following the recommendations of the Cochrane Collaboration and other experts. 1 2 However, the methodology for both the assessment of quality and its incorporation into systematic reviews and meta-analysis are a matter of ongoing debate.3-5 In this article we discuss the concept of study quality and the methods used to assess quality. Components of internal and external validity of controlled clinical trials Internal validity—extent to which systematic error (bias) is minimised in clinical trials Selection bias: biased allocation to comparison groupsPerformance bias: unequal provision of care apart from treatment under evaluationDetection bias: biased assessment of outcomeAttrition bias: biased occurrence and handling of deviations from protocol and loss to follow upExternal validity—extent to which results of trials provide a correct basis for generalisation to other circumstancesPatients: age, sex, severity of disease and risk factors, comorbidityTreatment regimens: dosage, timing and route of administration, type of treatment within a class of treatments, concomitant treatmentsSettings: level of care (primary to tertiary) and experience and specialisation of care providerModalities of outcomes: type or definition of outcomes and duration of follow up Quality is a multidimensional concept, which could relate to the design, conduct, and analysis of a trial, its clinical relevance, or quality of reporting.6 The validity of the findings generated by a study clearly is an important dimension of quality. In the 1950s the social scientist Campbell proposed a useful distinction between internal and external validity (see box below). 7 8 Internal validity implies that the differences observed between groups of patients allocated to different …BMJ 08/2001; 323(7303):42-6. · 14.09 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate efficacy of cyclosporine A, administered at either of 2 dosages, in dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD). Multicenter randomized controlled trial. 91 dogs with AD. Dogs were assigned to receive placebo (30 dogs), cyclosporine at a low dosage (2.5 mg/kg [1.1 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h for 6 weeks; 30 dogs), or cyclosporine at a high dosage (5.0 mg/kg [2.3 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h for 6 weeks; 31 dogs). After 6 weeks, mean percentage reductions, compared with baseline scores, in scores of lesion severity were 34, 41, and 67% for dogs treated with the placebo, cyclosporine at the low dosage, and cyclosporine at the high dosage, respectively. Similarly, mean percentage reductions in pruritus scores were 15, 31, and 45%, respectively. Percentage reductions in skin lesion and pruritus scores were significantly higher for dogs given cyclosporine at the high dosage than for dogs given the placebo. Treatment efficacy was significantly associated with whether dogs had a history of seasonal AD. Percentage reductions in skin lesion and pruritus scores were high for dogs treated with cyclosporine at the highest dosage that had a history of nonseasonal AD. Dogs in all groups with seasonal AD improved during the study period. Results suggest that oral administration of cyclosporine at a dosage of 5.0 mg/kg once daily is effective in reducing severity of pruritus and skin lesions in dogs with AD, especially those with nonseasonal disease.Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 09/2002; 221(3):370-7. · 1.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Nine dogs meeting the diagnostic criteria for canine atopic dermatitis were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over clinical trial. In this pilot study, zileuton (a 5-lipoxygenase inhibitor) given orally at 2 mg kg(-1) three times daily for 4 weeks significantly decreased erythema in dogs with atopic dermatitis but had no effect on pruritus. Zileuton was well tolerated and no adverse clinical signs were noted. However, one dog developed mild alanine aminotransaminase elevation, which resolved within 1 week of discontinuation of therapy. Monitoring of alanine aminotransaminase may be necessary in dogs receiving zileuton. Further studies with larger number of dogs are needed to evaluate the efficacy of zileuton as treatment for canine atopic dermatitis.Veterinary Dermatology 09/2001; 12(4):189-95. · 2.02 Impact Factor