Interventions for atopic dermatitis in dogs: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
ABSTRACT The objective of this systematic review, which was performed following the guidelines of the Cochrane collaboration, was to assess the effects of interventions for treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) in dogs. Citations identified from three databases (MEDLINE, Thomson's Science Citation Index Expanded and CAB Abstracts) and trials published by December 2007 were selected. Proceedings books from the major veterinary dermatology international congresses were hand searched for relevant citations. The authors selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs), published from January 1980 to December 2007, which reported the efficacy of topical or systemic interventions for treatment or prevention of canine AD. Studies had to report assessments of either pruritus or skin lesions, or both. Studies were selected and data extracted by two reviewers, with discrepancies resolved by a third arbitrator. Missing data were requested from study authors of recently published trials. Pooling of results and meta-analyses were performed for studies reporting similar interventions and outcome measures. A total of 49 RCTs were selected, which had enrolled 2126 dogs. This review found some evidence of efficacy of topical tacrolimus (3 RCTs), topical triamcinolone (1), oral glucocorticoids (5), oral ciclosporin (6), subcutaneous recombinant gamma-interferon (1) and subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy (3) to decrease pruritus and/or skin lesions of AD in dogs. One high-quality RCT showed that an oral essential fatty acid supplement could reduce prednisolone consumption by approximately half. Additional RCTs of high design quality must be performed to remedy previous flaws and to test interventions for prevention of flares of this disease.
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ABSTRACT: A randomized, unmasked, multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the rate of pruritus reduction and improvement in clinical scoring by cyclosporine A (5 mg/kg orally, once daily for 28 days) either alone (n = 25 dogs) or with concurrent prednisolone (1 mg/kg once daily for 7 days, followed by alternate dosing for 14 days; n = 23 dogs) for the treatment of atopic dermatitis in dogs. Dogs were included in the study after exclusion of other causes of pruritic dermatitis, and were assessed by dermatologists on days 0, 14 +/- 1 and 28 +/- 2. Assessments included: general physical examination, CADESI-03 lesion scoring, overall clinical response, evaluation of adverse events (AEs), body weight and clinical pathology (hematology, clinical chemistry and urinalysis). Owner assessments, including pruritus (visual analogue scale, VAS) and overall assessment of response were conducted every 3--4 days, either during visits to the clinic or at home. Owners reported AEs to the investigator throughout the study. By day 28 +/- 2 both treatment groups resulted in a significant improvement of the atopic dermatitis. Both investigators and owners agreed that concurrent therapy resulted in a quicker improvement of the dogs 'overall' skin condition and of pruritus (significant reduction of pruritus by day 3--4, 72.8% improvement by day 14 +/- 1), when compared to cyclosporine A alone (significant reduction of pruritus by day 7--8, 24.7% improvement by day 14 +/- 1). CADESI-03 scores significantly improved in both groups by day 14 +/- 1 onwards, and there were no significant differences in the scores between treatment groups at any time points. A total of 56 AEs (cyclosporine A alone = 34; concurrent therapy = 22) were reported in 33 dogs. No dogs died or stopped treatment due to an AE. The most commonly reported AEs in the cyclosporine A group were associated with the digestive tract, whilst systemic disorders were reported more frequently observed following concurrent therapy. Evaluation of body weight change and clinical pathology indices showed no overall clinically significant abnormalities. In dogs with atopic dermatitis, a short initiating course of prednisolone expedited the efficacy of cyclosporine A in resolving pruritus and associated clinical signs. The observed adverse events were consistent with those expected for the individual veterinary medicinal products.BMC Veterinary Research 09/2013; 9(1):173. · 1.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Antihistaminic drugs are commonly used as symptomatic therapy of atopic dermatitis in dogs. Unfortunately, their clinical benefit is largely unsubstantiated. In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial, the influence of dimetinden and of a combination of chlorpheniramine and hydroxyzine on pruritus and lesions was evaluated in 19 dogs. They were treated with either product or a placebo orally for 14 days, each time followed by a 14-day washout period. Before and after each period, the dogs were examined and the Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index (CADESI) determined by a clinician, and the pruritus and general condition by the owner. Dimetinden improved the pruritus significantly (P=0.014) but not the CADESI (P=0.087), the combination of hydroxyzine and chlorpheniramine improved the CADESI (P=0.049) and pruritus (P=0.05) significantly. Ten of 17 dogs improved by more than 25 per cent in pruritus with the combination of hydroxyzine and chlorpheniramine, 12 of 18 with dimetindenmaleate and only 2 of 19 with placebo. Antihistamines can help to reduce pruritus in atopic dogs, but in most cases, the improvement is limited and additional treatment may be needed.The Veterinary record. 10/2013;
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ABSTRACT: Recent studies have shown that immunological aberrations and epidermal barrier defects could be important in the pathogenesis of canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) and that oral polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) might influence the epidermal barrier. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a spot-on formulation containing PUFAs and essential oils on pruritus and lesions caused by CAD. Forty-eight privately owned dogs of different breeds, ages and genders diagnosed with atopic dermatitis were included in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, multicentre clinical trial. Dogs were treated with a spot-on formulation containing PUFAs and essential oils or placebo on the dorsal neck once weekly for 8weeks. Before and after the study, CAD extent and severity index-03 (CADESI-03) and pruritus scores were determined by veterinarians and owners, respectively. There was significantly more improvement in CADESI-03 and pruritus scores in the treatment group than in the placebo group (P=0.011 and P=0.036, respectively). Additionally, more dogs improved by at least 50% in CADESI-03 and pruritus scores in the treatment group than in the placebo group (P=0.008 and P=0.070, respectively). No adverse reactions were observed. The topical preparation containing PUFAs and essential oils was a safe treatment and beneficial in ameliorating the clinical signs of CAD.The Veterinary Journal 10/2013; · 2.42 Impact Factor