Effects of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with implanted deep brain stimulation systems.
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to study the effects of MR imaging on the electrical settings of deep brain stimulation (DBS) systems and their clinical consequences.
The authors studied the effects of 1.5-T MR imaging on the electrical settings of implanted DBS systems, including 1 or more monopolar or quadripolar leads, extension leads, and single- or dual-channel implantable pulse generators (IPGs). The IPG was switched off during the procedure and the voltage was set to 0. The impedances were checked before and after MR imaging.
Five hundred seventy patients were treated with DBS for movement disorders and underwent brain MR imaging after lead implantation and before IPG implantation. None of the patients experienced any adverse events. Thirty-one of these patients underwent 61 additional MR imaging sessions after the entire DBS system had been implanted. The authors report neither local cutaneous nor neurological disorders during or after the MR imaging session. No change in the IPG settings occurred when the magnet reed switch function remained disabled during the procedure.
This study demonstrates that 1.5-T MR imaging can be performed safely with continuous monitoring in patients with a DBS system. The ability to disable the magnet reed switch function of the IPG prevents any change in the electrical settings and thus any side effects. The increasing number of DBS indications and the widespread use of MR imaging indicates the need for defining safety guidelines for the use of MR imaging in patients with implanted neurostimulators.
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ABSTRACT: The goal was to assess the safety of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with implanted neurostimulators, in an in vitro and in vivo study. Two different implantable pulse generators (IPGs) (ITREL II and 3; Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN) and different leads (separately and connected to an IPG) were tested in three different MRI scanners (0.2, 0.25, and 1.5 T). Measurements of the induced voltages (using an external oscilloscope) and the induced heat (using an infrared camera) were performed in an in vitro study. Finally, 38 patients with implanted neurostimulator systems (leads and IPGs) underwent MRI in 50 examinations, with continuous monitoring by a physician with uninterrupted visual and vocal contact with the patient. Twenty-five patients were studied prospectively, with documented printouts of the parameter settings before and after MRI. An induced voltage of 2.4 to 5.5 V was measured in the experimental configuration with a lead connected to an IPG. The voltage was higher with the leads alone, compared with the leads connected to the IPG, and was dependent on the MRI scanner, the sequences, and the type of lead. No heat induction was observed in any part of the hardware. No change of pulse shape or change of IPG parameters was observed during MRI. No adverse effects occurred in patients with chronically implanted deep brain leads connected to an IPG. MRI can be safely performed in patients with implanted neurostimulation systems with the tested deep brain leads connected to an IPG (ITREL II and 3), with running parameters. No heat induction was detected, and the experimentally measured induced voltage did not seem to harm the patients. Only the reed switch of the IPGs was activated; the other parameters remained unchanged. Further investigations must be performed to study the local electrical effects in larger plate electrodes; these effects might cause slight discomfort. There is no danger with any type of electrode during MRI examinations if the electrodes lie outside the region of interest. These observations are restricted to the tested devices. A conscientious estimation of the risks and benefits of MRI for patients with implanted devices is recommended. If the type of device is not known to the examiner, MRI should still be considered to be contraindicated.Neurosurgery 02/1999; 44(1):118-25; discussion 125-6. · 2.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The utility of functional magnetic resonance (fMR) imaging in patients with implanted thalamic electrodes has not yet been determined. The aim of this study was to establish the safety of performing fMR imaging in patients with thalamic deep brain stimulators and to determine the value of fMR imaging in detecting cortical and subcortical activity during stimulation. Functional MR imaging was performed in three patients suffering from chronic pain and two patients with essential tremor. Two of the three patients with pain had undergone electrode implantation in the thalamic sensory ventralis caudalis (Vc) nucleus and the other had undergone electrode implantation in both the Vc and the periventricular gray (PVG) matter. Patients with tremor underwent electrode implantation in the ventralis intermedius (Vim) nucleus. Functional MR imaging was performed during stimulation by using a pulse generator connected to a transcutaneous extension lead. Clinically, Vc stimulation evoked paresthesias in the contralateral body, PVG stimulation evoked a sensation of diffuse internal body warmth, and Vim stimulation caused tremor arrest. Functional images were acquired using a 1.5-tesla MR imaging system. The Vc stimulation at intensities provoking paresthesias resulted in activation of the primary somatosensory cortex (SI). Stimulation at subthreshold intensities failed to activate the SI. Additional stimulation-coupled activation was observed in the thalamus, the secondary somatosensory cortex (SII), and the insula. In contrast, stimulation of the PVG electrode did not evoke paresthesias or activate the SI, but resulted in medial thalamic and cingulate cortex activation. Stimulation in the Vim resulted in thalamic, basal ganglia, and SI activation. An evaluation of the safety of the procedure indicated that significant current could be induced within the electrode if a faulty connecting cable (defective insulation) came in contact with the patient. Simple precautions, such as inspection of wires for fraying and prevention of their contact with the patient, enabled the procedure to be conducted safely. Clinical safety was further corroborated by performing 86 MR studies in patients in whom electrodes had been implanted with no adverse clinical effects. This is the first report of the use of fMR imaging during stimulation with implanted thalamic electrodes. The authors' findings demonstrate that fMR imaging can safely detect the activation of cortical and subcortical neuronal pathways during stimulation and that stimulation does not interfere with imaging. This approach offers great potential for understanding the mechanisms of action of deep brain stimulation and those underlying pain and tremor generation.Journal of Neurosurgery 04/1999; 90(3):583-90. · 3.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Pulse-modulated radiofrequency diathermy treatment to the maxilla produced permanent diencephalic and brainstem lesions and a vegetative state in a patient with PD with implanted subthalamic electrodes for deep brain stimulation.Neurology 06/2001; 56(10):1384-6. · 8.25 Impact Factor