Effects of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with implanted deep brain stimulation systems
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to study the effects of MR imaging on the electrical settings of deep brain stimulation (DBS) systems and their clinical consequences.
The authors studied the effects of 1.5-T MR imaging on the electrical settings of implanted DBS systems, including 1 or more monopolar or quadripolar leads, extension leads, and single- or dual-channel implantable pulse generators (IPGs). The IPG was switched off during the procedure and the voltage was set to 0. The impedances were checked before and after MR imaging.
Five hundred seventy patients were treated with DBS for movement disorders and underwent brain MR imaging after lead implantation and before IPG implantation. None of the patients experienced any adverse events. Thirty-one of these patients underwent 61 additional MR imaging sessions after the entire DBS system had been implanted. The authors report neither local cutaneous nor neurological disorders during or after the MR imaging session. No change in the IPG settings occurred when the magnet reed switch function remained disabled during the procedure.
This study demonstrates that 1.5-T MR imaging can be performed safely with continuous monitoring in patients with a DBS system. The ability to disable the magnet reed switch function of the IPG prevents any change in the electrical settings and thus any side effects. The increasing number of DBS indications and the widespread use of MR imaging indicates the need for defining safety guidelines for the use of MR imaging in patients with implanted neurostimulators.
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ABSTRACT: MRI in patients bearing deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes may induce cerebral lesions due to electrode heating. To avoid neurological deficits related to MRI, post-operative MRI protocol was installed in our institution. However, our protocol comprised a higher specific absorption rate (SAR) and different positioning of lead excess than the later released electrode manufacturer's guidelines. The objective was to evaluate the safety using this protocol. Between January 2000 and May 2008, post-operative MRI was performed in all patients. In selected patients, additional MRI scans were performed with the implanted generator. MRI was acquired at 1.5 T with a RF transmit/receive head coil comprising a T2-weighted fast spin echo (FSE) and a T1-weighted inversion recovery FSE sequence. Local cranial SAR values measured up to 0.9 W/kg compared to the manufacturer's recommendation of 0.1 W/kg. Initial scans (1-7 days after surgery) were performed with externalized leads, long-term scans (>30 days after surgery) with a connected generator. New neurological deficits were assessed before and after MRI. Additional MRIs were compared to the initial postoperative MRI with emphasis on new lesions. In 211 patients, 243 MRIs were performed, including 212 initial post-operative MRI. In 12% (n = 24), 31 additional MRI examinations for various clinical reasons were achieved. No patients demonstrated new neurological deficits during or after MRI acquisitions. No complications were observed using this MRI protocol in DBS patients. Our results suggest that, within this setting, higher SAR values may be feasible for DBS patients than in the manufacturer's guidelines.Acta Neurochirurgica 12/2010; 152(12):2021-7. DOI:10.1007/s00701-010-0738-y · 1.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In advanced Parkinson's disease, several therapeutical option including not only lesional surgery (VIM, GPi) and deep brain stimulation (STN, GPi, VIM) but also continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion therapy can be proposed to the patient. The choice depends on the hope of the patient, patient's general health condition and the experience and choice of the neurosurgical and neurologist team. Here we report our experience based on 400 STN-DBS cases and we discuss, on the basis of our experience and on the literature, the advantage and disadvantage of DBS strategy as compared with non-surgical option such as continuous subcutaneous apomorphine infusion therapy.Journal of Neural Transmission 12/2010; 118(6):915-24. DOI:10.1007/s00702-010-0556-7 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The safety of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for deep brain stimulation (DBS) patients is of great importance to both movement disorders clinicians and to radiologists. The present study utilized the Deep Brain Stimulation Brain Tissue Network's (DBS-BTN's) clinical and neuropathological database to search for evidence of adverse effects of MRI performed on implanted DBS patients. Performing a 1.5 T MRI with a head receive coil on patients with implanted DBS devices should not result in evidence of adverse clinical or pathological effects in the DBS-BTN cohort. Further, exposing post-mortem DBS-BTN brains with DBS leads to extended 3T MRI imaging should not result in pathological adverse effects. An electronic literature search was performed to establish clinical and neuropathological criteria for evidence of MRI-related adverse reactions in DBS patients. A retrospective chart review of the DBS-BTN patients was then performed to uncover potential adverse events resulting from MRI scanning. DBS patient characteristics and MRI parameters were recorded for each patient. In addition, 3T MRI scans were performed on 4 post-mortem brains with DBS leads but without batteries attached. Detailed neuropathological studies were undertaken to search for evidence of MRI-induced adverse tissue changes. No clinical signs or symptoms or MRI-induced adverse effects were discovered in the DBS-BTN database, and on detailed review of neuroimaging studies. Neuropathological examination did not reveal changes consistent with MRI-induced heating damage. The novel study of four brains with prolonged 3T post-mortem magnetic field exposure (DBS leads left in place) also did not reveal pathological changes consistent with heat related damage. The current study adds important information to the data on the safety of MRI in DBS patients. Novel post-mortem MRI studies provide additional information regarding the safety of 3T MRI in DBS patients, and could justify additional studies especially post-mortem scans with battery sources in place. The lack of pathological findings in the DBS-BTN database and the lack of tissue related changes following prolonged exposure to 3T MRI in the post-mortem brains suggest that MRI scanning in DBS patients may be relatively safe, especially under current guidelines requiring a head receive coil. Subsequent studies exploring the safety of 1.5 T versus 3T MRI in DBS patients should utilize more in depth post-mortem imaging to better simulate the human condition.NeuroImage 01/2011; 54 Suppl 1:S233-7. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.09.014 · 6.13 Impact Factor