Age and energy intake interact to modify cell stress pathways and stroke outcome.
ABSTRACT Age and excessive energy intake/obesity are risk factors for cerebrovascular disease, but it is not known if and how these factors affect the extent of brain damage and outcome in ischemic stroke. We therefore determined the interactions of age and energy intake on the outcome of ischemic brain injury, and elucidated the underlying mechanisms.
We utilized a novel microchip-based immunoaffinity capillary electrophoresis technology to measure a panel of neurotrophic factors, cytokines, and cellular stress resistance proteins in brain tissue samples from young, middle-aged, and old mice that had been maintained on control or energy-restricted diets prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion.
Mortality from focal ischemic stroke was increased with advancing age and reduced by an intermittent fasting (IF) diet. Brain damage and functional impairment were reduced by IF in young and middle-aged mice, but not in old mice. The basal and poststroke levels of neurotrophic factors (brain-derived neurotrophic factor and basic fibroblast growth factor), protein chaperones (heat shock protein 70 and glucose regulated protein 78), and the antioxidant enzyme heme oxygenase-1 were decreased, whereas levels of inflammatory cytokines were increased in the cerebral cortex and striatum of old mice compared with younger mice. IF coordinately increased levels of protective proteins and decreased inflammatory cytokines in young, but not in old mice.
Reduction in dietary energy intake differentially modulates neurotrophic and inflammatory pathways to protect neurons against ischemic injury, and these beneficial effects of IF are compromised during aging, resulting in increased brain damage and poorer functional outcome.
Article: Insulin sensitivity and liver glucose production in the rat are influenced by lifetime food restriction.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In both humans and rats, food restriction leads to increased insulin sensitivity and predisposition to hypoglycemia. We hypothesized that metabolic responses to hypoglycemic episodes could be altered in food-restricted rats. To test our hypothesis, plasma glucose levels and liver glucose production during insulin-induced hypoglycemia were assessed. Rats either had free access to food (FF group) or were food restricted from birth (FR group). As adults, they were subjected to insulin-induced hypoglycemia after an overnight fast. Plasma glucose was measured before (time 0) the intraperitoneal injection of insulin (1 U/kg) and at regular intervals for 300 minutes. Some FF and FR rats received oral glucose (100 mg/kg) 15 minutes after insulin injection, and the same time intervals were investigated. The FR rats showed a larger decrease and slower recovery of plasma glucose than the FF group, and this was not influenced by oral glucose. Liver glucose production from glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis (ie, before and during the infusion of L-alanine) was higher and lower, respectively, in the FR rats than in the FF rats, either with or without oral glucose before liver perfusion. Preference for glycogenolysis could be a metabolic adaptation for the maintenance of plasma glucose levels during fasting despite lower food availability in the FR rats. However, long-term FR increased the severity of hypoglycemia and impaired plasma glucose recovery. In addition, hypoglycemia could not be prevented by glucose administration. Therefore, food restriction in individuals with intensive insulin therapy should be more rigorously examined.Nutrition research (New York, N.Y.) 09/2010; 30(9):626-31. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Stroke is the world's second leading cause of mortality, with a high incidence of severe morbidity in surviving victims. There are currently relatively few treatment options available to minimize tissue death following a stroke. As such, there is a pressing need to explore, at a molecular, cellular, tissue, and whole body level, the mechanisms leading to damage and death of CNS tissue following an ischemic brain event. This review explores the etiology and pathogenesis of ischemic stroke, and provides a general model of such. The pathophysiology of cerebral ischemic injury is explained, and experimental animal models of global and focal ischemic stroke, and in vitro cellular stroke models, are described in detail along with experimental strategies to analyze the injuries. In particular, the technical aspects of these stroke models are assessed and critically evaluated, along with detailed descriptions of the current best-practice murine models of ischemic stroke. Finally, we review preclinical studies using different strategies in experimental models, followed by an evaluation of results of recent, and failed attempts of neuroprotection in human clinical trials. We also explore new and emerging approaches for the prevention and treatment of stroke. In this regard, we note that single-target drug therapies for stroke therapy, have thus far universally failed in clinical trials. The need to investigate new targets for stroke treatments, which have pleiotropic therapeutic effects in the brain, is explored as an alternate strategy, and some such possible targets are elaborated. Developing therapeutic treatments for ischemic stroke is an intrinsically difficult endeavour. The heterogeneity of the causes, the anatomical complexity of the brain, and the practicalities of the victim receiving both timely and effective treatment, conspire against developing effective drug therapies. This should in no way be a disincentive to research, but instead, a clarion call to intensify efforts to ameliorate suffering and death from this common health catastrophe. This review aims to summarize both the present experimental and clinical state-of-the art, and to guide future research directions.Molecular Neurodegeneration 01/2011; 6(1):11. · 4.28 Impact Factor
Article: Calorie restriction and stroke.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT: Stroke, a major cause of disability and mortality in the elderly, occurs when a cerebral blood vessel is occluded or ruptured, resulting in ischemic damage and death of brain cells. The injury mechanism involves metabolic and oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, apoptosis and inflammatory processes, including activation of glial cells and infiltration of leukocytes. In animal models, dietary energy restriction, by daily calorie reduction (CR) or intermittent fasting (IF), extends lifespan and decreases the development of age-related diseases. Dietary energy restriction may also benefit neurons, as suggested by experimental evidence showing that CR and IF protect neurons against degeneration in animal models. Recent findings by our group and others suggest the possibility that dietary energy restriction may protect against stroke induced brain injury, in part by inducing the expression of neurotrophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF); protein chaperones, including heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78); antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases (SOD) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1), uncoupling proteins and anti-inflammatory cytokines. This article discusses the protective mechanisms activated by dietary energy restriction in ischemic stroke.Experimental and Translational Stroke Medicine 09/2011; 3:8.