Hepatic steatosis associated with increased central body fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and uncontrolled HIV in HIV/hepatitis C co-infected persons.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the relationship between regional body composition and liver disease (fibrosis or steatosis) in HIV/HCV co-infected individuals.
Whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed in 173 HIV/HCV co-infected persons within 12 months of a liver biopsy. Significant fibrosis was defined as a METAVIR stage greater than 1. Steatosis was graded as: 0, none; 1, steatosis involving less than 5% of hepatocytes; 2, 5-29%; 3, 30-60%; 4 greater than 60%, and was defined as more than 0. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to estimate prevalence ratios of the outcome measures.
The population was 62% male and 84% black with a median body mass index of 25.2 kg/m (interquartile range 22.5, 29.3 kg/m). No differences in regional body fat or fat distribution were observed in 42 patients with significant fibrosis compared to others with less fibrosis. However, the 77 individuals (45%) with steatosis had greater central fat than those without steatosis [prevalence ratio 1.04 per kg trunk fat; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04, 1.11], after adjusting for hepatic fibrosis (prevalence ratio 1.77; 95% CI 1.29, 2.42), uncontrolled HIV replication (viral load >400 copies/ml) (prevalence ratio 1.57; 95% CI 1.12, 2.22), age, sex, race and diabetes mellitus.
In HIV/HCV co-infected individuals, measures of regional body fat or fat distribution were not associated with hepatic fibrosis. In contrast, increased central adiposity by DXA, as well as concomitant fibrosis and uncontrolled HIV, were associated with hepatic steatosis. The extent to which weight loss and effective antiretroviral therapy can reduce the risk of steatosis deserves further investigation.
Gastroenterology 03/2011; 140(3):772-5. DOI:10.1053/j.gastro.2011.01.025 · 13.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-related hepatotoxicity, a relevant side effect in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected patients, has evolved over time. Antiretroviral therapy might have a positive effect on the liver of HIV/HCV co-infected patients, but data are conflicting. HIV treatments have evolved and we have currently a drug armamentarium with a good liver safety profile. Most of the current first-line HAART regimens recommended by guidelines fit well to HIV/HCV co-infected patients. There are now multiple retrospective studies that suggest a possible benefit of HIV control and protection of CD4 cell counts to the liver of HIV/HCV co-infected patients. However, data are conflicting at times. This factor along with the methodological limitations of these studies prevent us from drawing definitive conclusions. Even assuming a positive effect, HAART does not appear to fully correct the adverse effect of HIV infection on HCV-related outcomes. In the era of HCV direct antiviral agents, the timing of HIV and HCV therapies has to be individualized in HIV/HCV co-infected patients given the variety of scenarios. With current HIV drug armamentarium it is possible to construct HAART regimens with optimal liver safety profile for HCV co-infected patients. The possible positive effect of HAART on the HCV-infected liver should not distract from the main intervention, which is HCV eradication with specific treatment.Current opinion in HIV and AIDS 11/2011; 6(6):546-52. DOI:10.1097/COH.0b013e32834bcbd9 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with increased serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART), but the relationship of adipose tissue mass to systemic inflammation is not well described in this population. We hypothesized that serum adipokine levels (i.e., hormones produced by adipocytes) are a superior predictor of CRP compared to anthropometric or radiographic measures of body composition in patients on effective, stable ART. We evaluated the relationship of serum leptin, adiponectin, and resistin, BMI, and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) measurements with serum highly sensitive CRP (hsCRP) in a cross-sectional cohort of 106 predominantly virologically suppressed, HIV-infected adults on ART for ≥24 weeks using multivariable linear regression and formal criteria to assess statistical mediation. Median BMI, hsCRP, and leptin values were 25.2 kg/m(2), 3.0 mg/liter, and 3.8 ng/ml, respectively. BMI and DEXA limb fat, body fat, and trunk fat measurements were significantly associated with both serum leptin and hsCRP levels (all p≤0.02). Leptin was also associated with hsCRP (p<0.01). The regression coefficient for the effect of BMI or DEXA measurements on hsCRP was reduced, and the relationship was no longer statistically significant, after adjusting for leptin, indicating leptin functioned as a mediating variable within these relationships. Adiponectin and resistin levels did not demonstrate similar effects. Serum leptin was a superior predictor of hsCRP compared to BMI and DEXA body fat measurements, which may reflect alterations in body composition in treated HIV infection and the important contribution of adipose tissue to inflammation in this population.AIDS research and human retroviruses 12/2011; 28(6):552-7. DOI:10.1089/AID.2011.0232 · 2.46 Impact Factor