Rapid multiplexed genotyping for hereditary thrombophilia by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry.
ABSTRACT Approximately 50% of patients with venous thromboembolism also present with hereditary predisposition. The most common genetic factors are single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T. Genotyping these SNPs helps clinicians to correctly diagnose the disease and properly manage patients. In this study, we report a novel method using surface-enhanced laser desorption and ionization time of flight mass spectrometry to rapidly genotype, in a multiplex fashion, 3 SNPs that predispose patients to thrombosis. First, patient DNA samples were subjected to polymerase chain reaction to amplify and extend the DNA products with masses corresponding to specific genotypes. Polymerase chain reaction products were then applied to Q10 anionic protein chips, undergoing on-chip sample enrichment and clean-up. Finally, the genotypes of the SNPs were determined by surface-enhanced laser desorption and ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. This method offers a rapid turnaround time of less than 5 hours from sample collection to result reporting. The analytical accuracy of each SNP genotyping result has been confirmed by DNA sequencing. In addition, the genotype results produced by this method were validated by comparing them with results obtained by the approved method in the clinical reference laboratory. This novel method is fast, accurate, and reproducible, and thus provides an excellent platform to promote personalized medicine in the management of clotting disorders.
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ABSTRACT: The capacity of clopidogrel to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation shows wide intersubject variability. To determine whether frequent functional variants of genes coding for candidate cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes involved in clopidogrel metabolic activation (CYP2C19*2, CYP2B6*5, CYP1A2*1F, and CYP3A5*3 variants) influence the platelet responsiveness to clopidogrel, we conducted a prospective pharmacogenetic study in 28 healthy white male volunteers treated for 7 days with clopidogrel 75 mg/d. We observed that pharmacodynamic response to clopidogrel was significantly associated with the CYP2C19 genotype. Twenty of the subjects were wild-type CYP2C19 (*1/*1) homozygotes, while the other 8 subjects were heterozygous for the loss-of-function polymorphism CYP2C19*2 (*1/*2). Baseline platelet activity was not influenced by the CYP2C19 genotype. In contrast, platelet aggregation in the presence of 10 muM ADP decreased gradually during treatment with clopidogrel 75 mg once daily in *1/*1 subjects, reaching 48.9% +/- 14.9% on day 7 (P < .001 vs baseline), whereas it did not change in *1/*2 subjects (71.8% +/- 14.6% on day 7, P = .22 vs baseline, and P < .003 vs *1/*1 subjects). Similar results were found with VASP phosphorylation. The CYP2C19*2 loss-of-function allele is associated with a marked decrease in platelet responsiveness to clopidogrel in young healthy male volunteers and may therefore be an important genetic contributor to clopidogrel resistance in the clinical setting.Blood 10/2006; 108(7):2244-7. · 9.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Venous thromboembolism can be a life-threatening event, occurring in ~1 in 1000 adults annually. An underlying cause for thrombosis can now be identified in up to 80% of cases, including both inherited and acquired causes of thrombophilia. In fact, it is often a combination of these risk factors that leads to the development of thrombosis. Knowing what these risk factors are for an individual patient can help with decisions regarding duration of anticoagulation, and how best to prevent a recurrent event. This article reviews both the inherited and the acquired causes of thrombophilia, focusing on the clinical scenarios in which these disorders should be suspected and on how to appropriately test for them when clinically indicated. By the conclusion of this article, the clinician should be equipped with an algorithm of how to approach a patient with a thromboembolic event, from decisions regarding which thrombophilia tests to order to how the results of these tests affect patient management.Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 03/2008; 29(1):25-39. · 2.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Genetic variants of the enzyme that metabolizes warfarin, cytochrome P-450 2C9 (CYP2C9), and of a key pharmacologic target of warfarin, vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1), contribute to differences in patients' responses to various warfarin doses, but the role of these variants during initial anticoagulation is not clear. In 297 patients starting warfarin therapy, we assessed CYP2C9 genotypes (CYP2C9 *1, *2, and *3), VKORC1 haplotypes (designated A and non-A), clinical characteristics, response to therapy (as determined by the international normalized ratio [INR]), and bleeding events. The study outcomes were the time to the first INR within the therapeutic range, the time to the first INR of more than 4, the time above the therapeutic INR range, the INR response over time, and the warfarin dose requirement. As compared with patients with the non-A/non-A haplotype, patients with the A/A haplotype of VKORC1 had a decreased time to the first INR within the therapeutic range (P=0.02) and to the first INR of more than 4 (P=0.003). In contrast, the CYP2C9 genotype was not a significant predictor of the time to the first INR within the therapeutic range (P=0.57) but was a significant predictor of the time to the first INR of more than 4 (P=0.03). Both the CYP2C9 genotype and VKORC1 haplotype had a significant influence on the required warfarin dose after the first 2 weeks of therapy. Initial variability in the INR response to warfarin was more strongly associated with genetic variability in the pharmacologic target of warfarin, VKORC1, than with CYP2C9.New England Journal of Medicine 04/2008; 358(10):999-1008. · 51.66 Impact Factor