Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a cofactor for nNOS, restores gastric emptying and nNOS expression in female diabetic rats.
ABSTRACT Gastroparesis is a debilitating disease predominantly affecting young women. Recently, dysregulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in myenteric plexus neurons has been implicated for delayed solid gastric emptying/gastroparesis in diabetic patients. In this study, we have explored the role of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a major cofactor for nNOS activity and NO synthesis in diabetic gastroparesis. Diabetes was induced with single injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg body wt, ip) in female rats, with experiments performed on week 3 or 9 following induction, with or without 3-wk BH4 supplementation. Gastric pyloric BH4 levels were significantly decreased in diabetic female rats compared with control (18.6 +/- 1.45 vs. 31.0 +/- 2.31 pmol/mg protein). In vitro studies showed that 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP), an inhibitor of BH4 synthesis, significantly decreased gastric NO release and nitrergic relaxation. Three-week dietary supplementation of BH4 either from day 1 or week 6 significantly attenuated diabetes-induced delayed gastric emptying for solids (3 wk: BH4, 67 +/- 6.7 vs. diabetic, 36.05 +/- 7.09; 9 wk: BH4, 57 +/- 8.45 vs. diabetic, 33 +/- 9.91) and diabetes-induced reduction in pyloric nNOS-alpha protein expression in female rats. Supplementation of BH4 significantly restored gastric nNOS-alpha dimerization in 9-wk-old diabetic female rats. In addition, BH4 treatment reversed (17.23 +/- 5.81 vs. 42.0 +/- 2.70 mmHg x s) the diabetes-induced changes in intragastric pressures (IGP) and gastric pyloric nitrergic relaxation (-0.62 +/- 0.01 vs. -0.22 +/- 0.07). BH4 deficiency plays a critical role in diabetes-induced alterations including delayed solid gastric emptying, increased IGP, reduced pyloric nitrergic relaxation, and nNOS-alpha expression in female rats. Supplementation of BH4 accelerates gastric emptying by restoring nitrergic system in diabetic female rats. Therefore, BH4 supplementation is a potential therapeutic option for female patients of diabetic gastroparesis.
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ABSTRACT: A generic mechanical model for bio-composites, including stiff platelets arranged in a staggered order inside a homogeneous soft matrix, is proposed. Equations are formulated in terms of displacements and are characterized by a set of non-dimensional parameters. The displacements, stress fields and effective modulus of the composite are formulated. Two analytical models are proposed, one which includes the shear deformations along the entire medium and another simplified model, which is applicable to a slender geometry and yields a compact expression for the effective modulus. The results from the models are validated by numerical finite element simulations and found to be compatible with each other for a wide range of geometrical and material properties. Finally, the models are solved for two bio-structures, nacre and a collagen fibril, and their solutions are discussed.Highlights► A mechanical model for generic staggered bio-structures is formulated. ► The effective modulus is evaluated analytically. ► Comprehensive validation is conducted by finite element simulations. ► Two examples of bio-structures, nacre and a collagen fibril, are solved.Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 01/2011; 59(9):1685-1701. · 3.41 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Accumulating evidence suggests that gender-related differences are prominent in gastric motility functions in both health and disease. Women are more susceptible to gastroparesis than men. Though the mechanism(s) involved are not fully understood, impairment of the nitrergic system is one of the main factors responsible for the disease. Uncoupling of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) causes a decreased synthesis of NO leading to a reduction in smooth muscle relaxation. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH(4)) (an essential cofactor for nNOS) is a key regulator of nNOS activity for stomach dysfunction and gastroparesis. In addition, BH(4) has been shown to be a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Well established by results from our laboratory, a diminished intracellular (BH(4):total biopterin) ratio in diabetic female rats significantly impairs nNOS activity and function. Recent research has been focused on BH(4) biosynthesis and gastroparesis because reduced BH(4) cofactor levels can alter the production of NO by nNOS. Researchers are now paying more attention to the possibility of using BH(4) as a therapeutic strategy in gastroparesis. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the regulation and function of nNOS by sex hormones and BH(4) and its potential role in the treatment of gastroparesis.Digestive Diseases and Sciences 05/2011; 56(9):2520-7. · 2.26 Impact Factor
- Gastroenterology 01/2011; 140(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor