Article

Aproximación al concepto de ansiedad en psicología: su carácter complejo y multidimensional

Aula: Revista de Pedagogía de la Universidad de Salamanca, ISSN 0214-3402, Nº 5, 1993, pags. 9-22
Source: OAI

ABSTRACT La ansiedad, estado emotivo y respuesta que surge cuando uno se halla expuesto a situaciones que impliquen peligro o amenaza, es una experiencia universal y cotidiana para todo ser humano. Es, además, una conducta que cumple una función esencialmente adaptativa. Ahora bien, la ansiedad puede ser también una conducta patológica, cuando, por la continuidad de las respuestas o la excesiva intensidad de las mismas, no se logra establecer el equilibrio entre el sujeto y los estímulos. Estamos, pues, ante un concepto complejo en el que existen implícitos diferentes significados. A ello ha contribuido el hecho de que la ansiedad es un tema abordado desde ámbitos disciplinarios muy diferentes (Filosofía, Biología, Psicología, Sociología, entre otros). Pero especialmente esto ha sido favorecido por la pluralidad teórica de la psicología que lleva a cada teoría a proponer un modelo explicativo de la ansiedad. A pesar de ello, los progresos actuales sobre el conocimiento de los mecanismos de la ansiedad y sus consecuencias, permiten que se haya llegado al acuerdo de un concepto de ansiedad, valido desde los distintos ámbitos disciplinarios y teóricos, como una forma de conducta compleja y multidimensional en la que existen componentes de respuesta fisiológicos, motores y subjetivo-cognitivos. Este patrón de conducta surge cuando un individuo se halla expuesto a estímulos interpretados como amenazantes, bien porque objetivamente lo sean, o porque el subjetivamente así lo vivencia

0 Followers
 · 
146 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Against the older view that anxiety is an instinctive reaction to phylogenetically predetermined objects or situations, it is argued that anxiety is a learned response to conditioned stimuli that are premonitory of injury or pain situations. It is biologically useful in motivating organisms to adapt to harmful events in advance of their occurrence. But humans in particular develop irrational tendencies to have anxiety in situations that are not dangerous and vice versa. An analysis of the reasons for such "disproportionality of affect" throws light on superstition, social exploitation, and the psychoneuroses. If anxiety is a connecting link between well-being and organic discomfort, it accounts for day-to-day behavior in the absence of simultaneously active organic drives and for the action of the "law of effect" (learning through motivation-reduction). Anxiety may effectively motivate humans and reduction of anxiety may reinforce behavior that brings about a state of relief or security. This analysis suggests a number of experimental problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Psychological Review 10/1939; 46(6):553-565. DOI:10.1037/h0054288 · 7.72 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: If the theory advanced by Watson and Morgan (in 'Emotional Reactions and Psychological Experimentation,' American Journal of Psychology, April, 1917, Vol. 28, pp. 163-174) to the effect that in infancy the original emotional reaction patterns are few, consisting so far as observed of fear, rage and love, then there must be some simple method by means of which the range of stimuli which can call out these emotions and their compounds is greatly increased. Otherwise, complexity in adult response could not be accounted for. These authors without adequate experimental evidence advanced the view that this range was increased by means of conditioned reflex factors. It was suggested there that the early home life of the child furnishes a laboratory situation for establishing conditioned emotional responses. The present authors present their experimental findings of conditioned fear responses in a male infant beginning at 11 months of age. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Journal of Experimental Psychology 01/1920; 3(1):1-14. DOI:10.1037/h0069608 · 4.70 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: (This reprinted article originally appeared in the Journal of Experimental Psychology, 1948, Vol 38, 89–201. The following abstract of the original article appeared in PA, Vol 22:2945.) Albino rats were trained to go from a white compartment through an open door into a black compartment in order to escape from electric shock. To demonstrate that an acquired drive (fear of anxiety) had been established, the animals were taught a new habit without further shocks. The door (previously always open) was closed. The only way that the door could be opened was by rotating a little wheel, which was above the door, a fraction of a turn. Under these conditions, the animals exhibited trial-and-error behavior and gradually learned to escape from the white compartment by rotating the wheel. If conditions were changed so that only pressing a bar would open the door, wheel turning extinguished, and a 2nd new habit (bar pressing) was learned. Control experiments demonstrated that the learning of the new habits was dependent on having received moderately strong electric shocks during the 1st stages of training. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Journal of Experimental Psychology 03/1948; 38(1):89-101. DOI:10.1037/0096-3445.121.1.6 · 4.70 Impact Factor

Preview

Download
4 Downloads
Available from