Independent contributions of cognitive functioning and social risk factors to symptoms of ADHD in two nordic populations-based cohorts.
ABSTRACT This study examined independent contributions of executive functioning (EF), state regulation (SR), and social risk factors to symptom dimensions of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in two cohorts, which included 221 Norwegian children and 294 Finnish adolescents. Independent contributions of EF and SR were shown in the Norwegian cohort and EF contributed independently in the Finnish cohort. When controlling for each symptom dimension, cognitive functioning and social risk factors were differentially associated with inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms. The results show the need to include both social risk factors and cognitive functioning to obtain a better understanding of ADHD symptoms.
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ABSTRACT: Positive family environments are crucial in promoting children's emotional and behavioural well-being, and may also buffer development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is highly heritable, but psychosocial factors in the family environment, particularly family cohesion and communication, may mediate genetic predispositions. The purpose of the current study is to examine the mediating influence of the adoptive family environment between pre-adoptive risk factors and youths' ADHD symptomatology at 14 years post adoption. The data used in this study were obtained from the fourth wave of the California Long-Range Adoption Study (CLAS) (n = 449). Using structural equation modelling (SEM), family sense of coherence and family adaptability were tested as possible mediators between environmental and biological predictors and ADHD symptomatology. Predictors included birthweight, gender, age at adoption, adoption from foster care, transracial adoption status, ethnicity and having a previous diagnosis of ADHD. Results show that, while adoption from foster care is negatively associated with family functioning, higher family cohesion and adaptability mediate this influence on children's ADHD symptomatology. Older age of adoption directly predicts greater ADHD symptoms with no mediating influence of the family environment. The mediating influence of the family environment between children's risk factors and ADHD symptoms suggests that family intervention strategies may be helpful in improving adopted children's outcomes. Once children are adopted, targeting family communication patterns and dynamics may be an additional part of developing an evidence-based, post-adoption services toolkit.Child Care Health and Development 10/2013; 40(6). DOI:10.1111/cch.12112 · 1.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recognizing and understanding different causes and manifestations of children’s behaviour carries importance for all professionals who work with children, regardless of whether their field of work is within the welfare system, health or education. It is especially so if the development of social competences of a child goes beyond the social expectations and norms. This paper focusses on social aspects of children’s self-control developmental difficulties and difficulties in social functioning called attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which have been investigated based on recent literature and research. The challenges faced by those children and their parents were described taking into consideration two aspects of the issue: developmental difficulties in a child’s self-regulation and adaptation causing social dysfunction, and facing the lack of social understanding. The paper gives a brief overview of studies that describe the attitudes of the social environment of a child with ADHD, as well as the stigma attributed to children and indirectly to their parents (the so-called courtesy stigma). Moreover, the paper describes the experience of parenting and challenges in upbringing in terms of coping with parenting stress, as well as several risks of social functioning of children and adolescents with ADHD found prominently in the literature. Finally, potentials of those children and possible factors of success in everyday life are highlighted, as well as a critical review of research methodology. The paper is aimed at professionals, who in their professional lives meet with children and young people who have difficulties with social adjustment, in order to understand the difficulties faced by these children and their parents better. In addition, a review of the international literature offers a framework for planning research which will be contextually appropriate for domestic researchers.Ljetopis socijalnog rada 01/2013; 20(2). · 0.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Prepoznavanje i razumijevanje različitih uzroka i pojavnosti ponašanja djece, osobito ako se razvoj i primjena socijalnih kompetencija ne odvijaju u okvirima socijalnih očekivanja i normativa, važno je za sve stručnjake koji rade s djecom, bez obzira veže li se njihovo područje djelovanja uz sustav socijalne skrbi, zdravstva ili odgoja i obrazovanja. U ovom se radu na temelju recentnije literature i istraživanja opisuju socijalni aspekti svakodnevnog života jedne od razvojnih teškoća samokontrole i socijalnog funkcioniranja pod nazivom deficit pažnje/hiperaktivni poremećaj (ADHD). Izazovi s kojima se susreću ova djeca i njihovi roditelji razmatrani su s dva stanovišta: razvojnih teškoća u samoregulaciji i adaptaciji djeteta koje pridonose teškoćama u socijalnom funkcioniranju, te suočavanja s nerazumijevanjem socijalne okoline. Iznesen je kratak pregled istraživanja koja opisuju informiranost i stavove socijalne okoline o djetetu s ADHD-om, kao i stigma koja se pripisuje djeci i posredno njihovim roditeljima (prenesena stigma). Također je opisano iskustvo roditeljevanja i izazova u odgoju te posljedičnog nošenja s roditeljskim stresom, te nekoliko u literaturi istaknutih rizika socijalnog funkcioniranja djece i mladih s ADHD-om. U konačnici su istaknuti potencijali ove djece i čimbenici moguće uspješnosti u svakodnevnom životu, kao i kritički osvrt na metodologiju istraživanja koja se bave ovom temom. Rad je namijenjen stručnjacima koji se u svom profesionalnom djelovanju susreću s djecom i mladima koji imaju teškoće u socijalnoj prilagodbi, kako bi bolje razumjeli izazove s kojima se suočavaju ova djeca i njihovi roditelji, ali i kako bi se kroz pregled svjetske literature ponudio okvir za planiranje istraživanja koja će nam biti kontekstualno primjerenija.Ljetopis socijalnog rada 01/2013; 20(2):269-300. · 0.37 Impact Factor