Internet-based and other computerized psychological treatments for adult depression: a meta-analysis.

Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
Cognitive behaviour therapy 12/2009; 38(4):196-205. DOI: 10.1080/16506070903318960
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Computerized and, more recently, Internet-based treatments for depression have been developed and tested in controlled trials. The aim of this meta-analysis was to summarize the effects of these treatments and investigate characteristics of studies that may be related to the effects. In particular, the authors were interested in the role of personal support when completing a computerized treatment. Following a literature search and coding, the authors included 12 studies, with a total of 2446 participants. Ten of the 12 studies were delivered via the Internet. The mean effect size of the 15 comparisons between Internet-based and other computerized psychological treatments vs. control groups at posttest was d = 0.41 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.29-0.54). However, this estimate was moderated by a significant difference between supported (d = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.45-0.77) and unsupported (d = 0.25; 95% CI: 0.14-0.35) treatments. The authors conclude that although more studies are needed, Internet and other computerized treatments hold promise as potentially evidence-based treatments of depression.

Download full-text


Available from: Gerhard Andersson, Jun 21, 2015
  • Source
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: It is well known that web-based interventions can be effective treatments for depression. However, dropout rates in web-based interventions are typically high, especially in self-guided web-based interventions. Rigorous empirical evidence regarding factors influencing dropout in self-guided web-based interventions is lacking due to small study sample sizes. In this paper we examined predictors of dropout in an individual patient data meta-analysis to gain a better understanding of who may benefit from these interventions. A comprehensive literature search for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of psychotherapy for adults with depression from 2006 to January 2013 was conducted. Next, we approached authors to collect the primary data of the selected studies. Predictors of dropout, such as socio-demographic, clinical, and intervention characteristics were examined. Data from 2705 participants across ten RCTs of self-guided web-based interventions for depression were analysed. The multivariate analysis indicated that male gender [relative risk (RR) 1.08], lower educational level (primary education, RR 1.26) and co-morbid anxiety symptoms (RR 1.18) significantly increased the risk of dropping out, while for every additional 4 years of age, the risk of dropping out significantly decreased (RR 0.94). Dropout can be predicted by several variables and is not randomly distributed. This knowledge may inform tailoring of online self-help interventions to prevent dropout in identified groups at risk.
    Psychological Medicine 04/2015; DOI:10.1017/S0033291715000665 · 5.43 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Depression is a common and significant health problem among older adults. Unfortunately, while effective psychological treatments exist, few older adults access treatment. The aim of the present randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to examine the efficacy, long-term outcomes, and cost-effectiveness of a therapist-guided internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (iCBT) intervention for Australian adults over 60 years of age with symptoms of depression. Participants were randomly allocated to either a treatment group (n = 29) or a delayed-treatment waitlist control group (n = 25). Twenty-seven treatment group participants started the iCBT treatment and 70% completed the treatment within the 8-week course, with 85% of participants providing data at posttreatment. Treatment comprised an online 5-lesson iCBT course with brief weekly contact with a clinical psychologist, delivered over 8 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 Item (PHQ-9), a measure of symptoms and severity of depression. Significantly lower scores on the PHQ-9 (Cohen’s d = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.38 - 2.72) and on a measure of anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 Item) (Cohen’s d = 1.22; 95% CI: 0.61 - 1.79) were observed in the treatment group compared to the control group at posttreatment. The treatment group maintained these lower scores at the 3-month and 12-month follow-up time points and the iCBT treatment was rated as acceptable by participants. The treatment group had slightly higher Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALYs) than the control group at posttreatment (estimate: 0.012; 95% CI: 0.004 to 0.020) and, while being a higher cost (estimate $52.9 l 95% CI: − 23.8 to 128.2), the intervention was cost-effective according to commonly used willingness-to-pay thresholds in Australia. The results support the potential efficacy and cost-effectiveness of therapist-guided iCBT as a treatment for older adults with symptoms of depression.
    Behavior Therapy 03/2015; 46(2-2):193-205. DOI:10.1016/j.beth.2014.09.008 · 2.43 Impact Factor