Biogeography of Tick-Borne Bhanja Virus (Bunyaviridae) in Europe

Medical Zoology Laboratory, Institute of Vertebrate Biology ASCR, Klásterní 2, 69142 Valtice, Czech Republic.
Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases 01/2009; 2009:372691. DOI: 10.1155/2009/372691
Source: PubMed


Bhanja virus (BHAV) is pathogenic for young domestic ruminants and also for humans, causing fever and affections of the central nervous system. This generally neglected arbovirus of the family Bunyaviridae is transmitted by metastriate ticks of the genera Haemaphysalis, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, Rhipicephalus, Boophilus, and Amblyomma. Geographic distribution of BHAV covers southern and Central Asia, Africa, and southern (partially also central) Europe. Comparative biogeographic study of eight known natural foci of BHAV infections in Europe (in Italy, Croatia, Bulgaria, Slovakia) has revealed their common features. (1) submediterranean climatic pattern with dry growing season and wet mild winter (or microlimatically similar conditions, e.g., limestone karst areas in central Europe), (2) xerothermic woodland-grassland ecosystem, with plant alliances Quercetalia pubescentis, Festucetalia valesiacae, and Brometalia erecti, involving pastoral areas, (3) presence of at least one of the tick species Haemaphysalis punctata, Dermacentor marginatus, Rhipicephalus bursa, and/or Hyalomma marginatum, and (4) presence of >/=60% of the 180 BHAV bioindicator (157 plant, 4 ixodid tick, and 19 vertebrate spp.). On that basis, Greece, France (southern, including Corsica), Albania, Spain, Hungary, European Turkey, Ukraine (southern), Switzerland (southern), Austria (southeastern), Germany (southern), Moldova, and European Russia (southern) have been predicted as additional European regions where BHAV might occur.

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    • "♂♂, ♀♀ Brač Island: (Tovornik 1980, Hubálek 2010) "
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    ABSTRACT: The present paper is based on original and literature data. In Croatia the first studies on the occurrence of ixodid species were made about 80 years ago. The number of tick species recorded in Croatia considerably increased during the 1950s, 60s, 70s and 80s of the past century. A total of 21 species of hard tick belonging to 5 genera have been recorded in Croatia. Ixodes is the best represented genus, with seven species recorded. Haemaphysalis is represented by six species, followed by Rhipicephalus with four species. Dermacentor and Hyalomma are represented by two species each. The ticks were collected on 47 different host species. Eleven tick species were collected on Bos taurus and Ovis aries, followed by Capra hircus and Equus caballus with 8 species and Canis lupus familiaris with 6 species. On the remaining 42 host species one, two or three tick species were collected. The most widespread tick is Ixodes ricinus which was found on 25 different host species.
    ZooKeys 10/2012; 234(234):19-57. DOI:10.3897/zookeys.234.3658 · 0.93 Impact Factor
    • "The virus is present in southern and central Asia, Africa and southern Europe. Bhanja virus was first isolated from Haemphysalis intermedia but has also been detected in a number of Hyalomma species including H. marginatum, H. detritum, H. dromedarii, H. truncatum and H. asiaticum (Hubálek 2009). Although it does not seem to be highly pathogenic, Bhanja virus has been shown to cause fever and CNS symptoms in young ruminant animals (lambs, kids and calves). "
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    ABSTRACT: Traditional tick taxonomy based on morphological characters is recently challenged by data generated from DNA analysis and several revisions in tick families have been proposed accordingly. Thus, names of some tick genera and their taxonomic positions have changed, species moved from one rank to another, while other names were invalidated. In this chapter, we update the genus Hyalomma species names as compiled from recent re-descriptions of species and tick reviews up to year 2011. Hyalomma species are known vectors of large numbers of parasites and pathogens transmitted to humans and livestock in different parts of the world making these ticks the economically most important ixodids.
    Arthropods as Vectors of Emerging Diseases, Edited by Mehlhorn, Heinz, 01/2012: pages 167-194; Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
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    • "While climate warming in Europe and global social changes have led to focussing attention to novel emerging infectious diseases [1, 2], there are many hardly noticed European arboviral infections causing neurological disorders like encephalitis or meningo-encephalitis [3, 4] and fevers [5, 6]. The aetiology of aseptic meningo-encephalitis in 50% of the cases in Europe for example remains unclear [3, 7]. "
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    ABSTRACT: It is suspected that apart from tick-borne encephalitis virus several additional European Arboviruses such as the sandfly borne Toscana virus, sandfly fever Sicilian virus and sandfly fever Naples virus, mosquito-borne Tahyna virus, Inkoo virus, Batai virus and tick-borne Uukuniemi virus cause aseptic meningo-encephalitis or febrile disease in Europe. Currently, the microarray technology is developing rapidly and there are many efforts to apply it to infectious diseases diagnostics. In order to arrive at an assay system useful for high throughput analysis of samples from aseptic meningo-encephalitis cases the authors developed a combined multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification and flow-through microarray assay for the detection of European Bunyaviruses. These results show that this combined assay indeed is highly sensitive, and specific for the accurate detection of multiple viruses.
    Molecular Biotechnology 03/2011; 49(2):176-86. DOI:10.1007/s12033-011-9389-3 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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