Differential effects of well-being promoting and anxiety-management strategies in a non-clinical school setting.
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to examine the differential effects of strategies for promotion of psychological well-being (Well-Being Therapy, WBT) and removal of distress (Anxiety Management, AM) in a non-clinical school setting.162 students attending middle schools in Northern Italy were randomly assigned to: (a) a protocol derived from WBT; (b) an anxiety-management protocol (AM). The students were assessed immediately before and after the interventions, and after 6 months using: Psychological Well-Being Scales (PWB), Symptom Questionnaire (SQ) and the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS). In school children, well-being and symptom focused interventions produced slightly different effects on psychological dimensions. WBT, by facilitating progression toward positive and optimal functioning, may integrate symptom-centered strategies.
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ABSTRACT: This study assessed the impact of school-based social competence training on skills, social adjustment, and self-reported substance use of 282 sixth and seventh graders. Training emphasized broad-based competence promotion in conjunction with domain-specific application to substance abuse prevention. The 20-session program comprised six units: stress management, self-esteem, problem solving, substances and health information, assertiveness, and social networks. Findings indicated positive training effects on Ss' skills in handling interpersonal problems and coping with anxiety. Teacher ratings revealed improvements in Ss' constructive conflict resolution with peers, impulse control, and popularity. Self-report ratings indicated gains in problem-solving efficacy. Results suggest some preventive impact on self-reported substance use intentions and excessive alcohol use. In general, the program was found to be beneficial for both inner-city and suburban students.Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 03/1992; 60(1):56-63. · 4.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Adolescent offspring of depressed parents are at high risk for development of depression. Cognitive restructuring therapy holds promise for preventing progression to depressive episodes. A randomized, controlled trial was conducted to prevent depressive episodes in at-risk offspring (aged 13-18 years) of adults treated for depression in a health maintenance organization (HMO). Potential adult cases were found by reviewing the HMO pharmacy records for dispensation of antidepressant medication and the mental health appointment system. Medical charts were reviewed for a depression diagnosis. Recruitment letters signed by treating physicians were mailed to adults. Eligible offspring had subdiagnostic depressive symptoms insufficient to meet full DSM-III-R criteria for affective disorder and/or a past mood disorder. These youth were randomized to usual HMO care (n = 49) or usual care plus a 15-session group cognitive therapy prevention program (n = 45). We detected significant treatment-by-time (program) effects for the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (P=.005) and the Global Assessment of Functioning scores (P =.04). Survival analysis of incident major depressive episodes during a median 15-month follow-up found a significant advantage (P =.003) for the experimental condition (9.3% cumulative major depression incidence) compared with the usual-care control condition (28.8%). A brief, group cognitive therapy prevention program can reduce the risk for depression in the adolescent offspring of parents with a history of depression.Archives of General Psychiatry 01/2002; 58(12):1127-34. · 13.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A program of home visitation by nurses has been shown to affect the rates of maternal welfare dependence, criminality, problems due to use of substances, and child abuse and neglect. However, the long-term effects of this program on children's antisocial behavior have not been examined. To examine the long-term effects of a program of prenatal and early childhood home visitation by nurses on children's antisocial behavior. Fifteen-year follow-up of a randomized trial. Interviews were conducted with the adolescents and their biological mothers or custodial parents. Semirural community in New York. Between April 1978 and September 1980, 500 consecutive pregnant women with no previous live births were recruited, and 400 were enrolled. A total of 315 adolescent offspring participated in a follow-up study when they were 15 years old; 280 (89%) were born to white mothers, 195 (62%) to unmarried mothers, 151 (48%) to mothers younger than 19 years, and 186 (59%) to mothers from households of low socioeconomic status at the time of registration during pregnancy. Families in the groups that received home visits had an average of 9 (range, 0-16) home visits during pregnancy and 23 (range, 0-59) home visits from birth through the child's second birthday. The control groups received standard prenatal and well-child care in a clinic. Children's self-reports of running away, arrests, convictions, being sentenced to youth corrections, initiation of sexual intercourse, number of sex partners, and use of illegal substances; school records of suspensions; teachers' reports of children's disruptive behavior in school; and parents' reports of the children's arrests and behavioral problems related to the children's use of alcohol and other drugs. Adolescents born to women who received nurse visits during pregnancy and postnatally and who were unmarried and from households of low socioeconomic status (risk factors for antisocial behavior), in contrast with those in the comparison groups, reported fewer instances (incidence) of running away (0.24 vs 0.60; P = .003), fewer arrests (0.20 vs 0.45; P = .03), fewer convictions and violations of probation (0.09 vs 0.47; P<.001), fewer lifetime sex partners (0.92 vs 2.48; P= .003), fewer cigarettes smoked per day (1.50 vs 2.50; P= .10), and fewer days having consumed alcohol in the last 6 months (1.09 vs 2.49; P = .03). Parents of nurse-visited children reported that their children had fewer behavioral problems related to use of alcohol and other drugs (0.15 vs 0.34; P = .08). There were no program effects on other behavioral problems. This program of prenatal and early childhood home visitation by nurses can reduce reported serious antisocial behavior and emergent use of substances on the part of adolescents born into high-risk families.JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association 10/1998; 280(14):1238-44. · 29.98 Impact Factor