Glutamate-haem ester bond formation is disfavoured in flavocytochrome P450 BM3: characterization of glutamate substitution mutants at the haem site of P450 BM3.

Manchester Interdisciplinary Biocentre, University of Manchester, UK.
Biochemical Journal (Impact Factor: 4.78). 02/2010; 427(3):455-66. DOI: 10.1042/BJ20091603
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Bacillus megaterium flavocytochrome P450 BM3 (CYP102A1) is a biotechnologically important cytochrome P450/P450 reductase fusion enzyme. Mutants I401E, F261E and L86E were engineered near the haem 5-methyl group, to explore the ability of the glutamate carboxylates to form ester linkages with the methyl group, as observed for eukaryotic CYP4 relatives. Although no covalent linkage was detected, mutants displayed marked alterations in substrate/inhibitor affinity, with L86E and I401E mutants having lower Kd values for arachidonic acid and dodecanoic (lauric) acid than WT (wild-type) BM3. All mutations induced positive shifts in haem Fe(III)/Fe(II) potential, with substrate-free I401E (-219 mV) being >170 mV more positive than WT BM3. The elevated potential stimulated FMN-to-haem electron transfer ~2-fold (to 473 s-1) in I401E, and resulted in stabilization of Fe(II)O2 complexes in the I401E and L86E P450s. EPR demonstrated some iron co-ordination by glutamate carboxylate in L86E and F261E mutants, indicating structural plasticity in the haem domains. The Fe(II)O2 complex is EPR-silent, probably resulting from antiferromagnetic coupling between Fe(III) and bound superoxide in a ferric superoxo species. Structural analysis of mutant haem domains revealed modest rearrangements, including altered haem propionate interactions that may underlie the thermodynamic perturbations observed. The mutant flavocytochromes demonstrated WT-like hydroxylation of dodecanoic acid, but regioselectivity was skewed towards omega-3 hydroxydodecanoate formation in F261E and towards omega-1 hydroxydodecanoate production in I401E. Our data point strongly to a likelihood that glutamate-haem linkages are disfavoured in this most catalytically efficient P450, possibly due to the absence of a methylene radical species during catalysis.

Download full-text


Available from: Colin William Levy, Jul 08, 2015
1 Follower
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The Mycobacterium tuberculosis cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP142 is encoded in a large gene cluster involved in metabolism of host cholesterol. CYP142 was expressed and purified as a soluble, low spin P450 hemoprotein. CYP142 binds tightly to cholesterol and its oxidized derivative cholest-4-en-3-one, with extensive shift of the heme iron to the high spin state. High affinity for azole antibiotics was demonstrated, highlighting their therapeutic potential. CYP142 catalyzes either 27-hydroxylation of cholesterol/cholest-4-en-3-one or generates 5-cholestenoic acid/cholest-4-en-3-one-27-oic acid from these substrates by successive sterol oxidations, with the catalytic outcome dependent on the redox partner system used. The CYP142 crystal structure was solved to 1.6 Å, revealing a similar active site organization to the cholesterol-metabolizing M. tuberculosis CYP125, but having a near-identical organization of distal pocket residues to the branched fatty acid oxidizing M. tuberculosis CYP124. The cholesterol oxidizing activity of CYP142 provides an explanation for previous findings that ΔCYP125 strains of Mycobacterium bovis and M. bovis BCG cannot grow on cholesterol, because these strains have a defective CYP142 gene. CYP142 is revealed as a cholesterol 27-oxidase with likely roles in host response modulation and cholesterol metabolism.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 09/2010; 285(49):38270-82. DOI:10.1074/jbc.M110.164293
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The crystal structures of the haem domains of Ala330Pro and Ile401Pro, two single-site proline variants of CYP102A1 (P450(BM3)) from Bacillus megaterium, have been solved. In the A330P structure, the active site is constricted by the relocation of the Pro329 side chain into the substrate access channel, providing a basis for the distinctive C-H bond oxidation profiles given by the variant and the enhanced activity with small molecules. I401P, which is exceptionally active towards non-natural substrates, displays a number of structural similarities to substrate-bound forms of the wild-type enzyme, notably an off-axial water ligand, a drop in the proximal loop, and the positioning of two I-helix residues, Gly265 and His266, the reorientation of which prevents the formation of several intrahelical hydrogen bonds. Second-generation I401P variants gave high in vitro oxidation rates with non-natural substrates as varied as fluorene and propane, towards which the wild-type enzyme is essentially inactive. The substrate-free I401P haem domain had a reduction potential slightly more oxidising than the palmitate-bound wild-type haem domain, and a first electron transfer rate that was about 10 % faster. The electronic properties of A330P were, by contrast, similar to those of the substrate-free wild-type enzyme.
    ChemBioChem 12/2010; 11(18):2549-56. DOI:10.1002/cbic.201000421
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The molecular basis of the post-translational modification involving covalent attachment of the heme with a glutamic acid observed in some enzymes of the CYP4 family of heme monooxygenases has been investigated using site-directed mutagenesis of CYP175A1 from Thermus thermophilus. Earlier studies of CYP4 as well as the G248E mutant of CYP101A1 showed covalent linkage of the heme to a conserved glutamic acid of helix I. We have introduced Glu/Asp at the Leu80 position in the β-turn of CYP175A1, on the basis of molecular modeling studies, to assess whether formation of such a covalent linkage is limited only to helix I or whether such modification may also take place with the residue that is spatially located at a position appropriate for activation by the heme peroxidase reaction. Tandem mass spectrometry analyses of the tryptic digest of the wild type and mutants of CYP175A1 were conducted to identify any heme-bound peptide. Tryptic digestion of the L80E mutant of CYP175A1 preincubated with H(2)O(2) showed formation of GLE(-heme)TDWGESWKEARK supporting covalent linkage of Glu80 with the heme in the mutant enzyme. No such heme-bound peptides were found if the sample was not preincubated in H(2)O(2), indicating no activation of the Glu by the heme peroxidase reaction, as proposed earlier. The wild type or L80D mutant of the enzyme did not give any heme-bound peptide. Thus, the results support the idea that covalent attachment of the heme to an amino acid in the protein matrix depends on the structural design of the active site.
    Biochemistry 02/2011; 50(6):1042-52. DOI:10.1021/bi101559z