La hiperactividad infantil: Principales enfoques terapéuticos

Aula: Revista de Pedagogía de la Universidad de Salamanca, ISSN 0214-3402, Nº 8, 1996, pags. 3-27
Source: OAI


Nowadays hyperactivity is considered one of the most frequent disorders within the clinical population of school children between 3 and 15% in normal schoolchildren and about 50% in clinical samples. The symptoms which identify this disorder: attention deficit, excesive motor activity and impulsivity, have very direct negative consequences on the child's adjustment behavior and on his school performance. The complexity of both the etiology and the syntomatic manifestations of this problem has generated different explanatory models of hyperactivity from which the several therapeutical approaches are derived for their treatment: pharmachological, behavioral and cognitive. The advantages and inconvénients of the exclusive utilization of the different strategies of intervention included in each of the approaches, together with a global and integrating vision of all psychological problems obliges us, in a final instance, to adopt multimodal and integrative therapeutic procedures in which the existing therapies are used interdisciplinarily. La hiperactividad es considerada en estos momentos como uno de los trastornos más frecuentes en el ámbito de la población clínica infantil de edad escolar, entre un 3-15% en niños normales de edad escolar y en torno al 50% en muestras clínicas.-- los síntomas que identifican este trastorno: "déficit de atención, actividad motora excesiva e impulsividad", tienen unas consecuencias negativas muy directas sobre la conducta adaptativa del niño y sobre su renidimiento escolar.-- la complejidad del problema, tanto en su etiología como en sus manifestaciones sintomáticas, ha generado diferentes modelos explicativos de la hiperactividad, modelos de los que se derivan los diversos enfoques terapéuticos para su tratamiento: "el farmacológico, el conductual y el cognitivo.-- las ventajas e inconvenientes en la utilización exclusiva de las diferentes estrategias de intervención incluidas en cada uno de los enfoques, junto con una visión global e integradora de todo problema psicológico, nos sitúa, en última instancia, en la adopción de planteamientos terapéuticos multimodales e integrales en los que interdisciplinarmente se utilicen las terapias existentes

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    ABSTRACT: Used data from the author's research program and other previous studies to (a) investigate the specific disabilities of hyperactive children; and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of stimulant drugs, particularly methylphenidate, on the measures found to differentiate between hyperactives and normals (e.g., the Continuous Performance Test). It is argued that a core group of symptoms involving inability to sustain attention and to control impulsivity can account for most of the deficits found in the hyperactive group. It also appears that the stimulants exert their main effect on these deficits. Correlational and factor analytic studies suggest that the same constellation of abilities underlies the behavior of normal children in several areas of cognitive and social functioning. (French summary) (69 ref.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
    Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science 09/1972; 4(4):259-282. DOI:10.1037/h0082313 · 0.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Matched pairs of hyperactive and normally active children were observed in six natural classroom settings and a number of specific behaviors continuously recorded. Both groups of children showed differences in behavior as a function of settings (selected to vary in amount of external stimulation and structure), but only certain settings differentiated hyperactive from control children. Hyperactive children displayed significantly more noise-vocalization and more disruptive and off-task behavior in the most frequently observed (low stimulation) classroom settings (e.g., seat work). Type of off-task behavior (out-of-seat or visually off-task) depended upon amount of classroom structure (i.e., teacher- vs. self-directed). Results were discussed in terms of their implications for identification and treatment of hyperactive children through the modification of the antecedent conditions of stimulation and structure.
    Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 04/1980; 8(1):93-109. DOI:10.1007/BF00918164 · 3.48 Impact Factor


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